A. Answer the following questions.
Q1: What are the main sources of water in Pakistan?
Ans: The main sources of water in Pakistan are Glaciers, Rainfall, Rivers and Underground water etc.
Q2: What are the river drainage systems of Pakistan? Describe briefly
Ans: There are three river drainages systems of Pakistan.
- The Indus Basin River: It originates from Tibet and flow to the west and finally fall into the Arabian Sea. It covers an area of 365000 sq miles. We receive 141.67 million square feet of water from it.
- Closed Basin Kharan desert: Its main rivers are Pishin Lora, Badoo Rakhshan and Mash Khel. It covers an area of 120,100 Sq. Km. We get 4.5 million-acre feet of water from it.
- Makran Coastal Basin: It consists of streams of Malir, Hub, Porali, Kud, Hingol, Nai, Dasht, Mashhad, Nihing and Kech.It covers an area of 122,400 Sq Km. We get 0.78 million water from it.
Q3: What are the main causes of water shortage in Pakistan? Discuss
Ans: The main causes of water shortage in Pakistan are as under:
- The rapid increase in population.
- Construction of dams by India over river Chenab and Jhelum.
- Wastage of water.
- Non-construction of more water reservoirs.
- Rapid depletion of groundwater.
Q4: What measures can we take to overcome water shortage in Pakistan?
Ans: We can take the following measures to overcome water shortage in Pakistan.
- Construction of water reservoirs.
- Control over wastage of water.
- Increased use of water-efficient crops
- Adopting water-efficient methods of irrigation.
- Implementation of national water policy 2018.
Q5: What can you do on own to contribute to the conservation of water in your home and surrounding?
Ans: We can do the following things to contribute to the conservation of water in our home and surrounding. We should check our house for leaks. We should take short showers. We should use less amount of water in domestic use etc.
Q6: What is the importance of building national reservoirs?
Ans: Building of national reservoirs of water are important because they provide water for domestic, industry and irrigation purposes. They also provide hydroelectric power production and river navigation.
B. Choose the correct options.
1. (c) Personification 2. (b) Deprived of
3. (a) Conserve water & reduce its wastage. 4. (d) Seventh
5. (d) Save water to secure your future.
The Infinitive: An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with “to”.
A. Locate the infinitives in each sentence. Identify each as an adverb, an adjective or a noun.
- To read
- To share, to care, to give, to receive
- To vote
- To call
- To finish
- To go
- To case, to solve
- To fly.
The infinitive Phrase: An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive together with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb.
- To win her friendship
- To sleep in
- To discuss the problem
- To bring cookies
- To win the lottery
- To visit on a cold day
- To obey at all times
- To think over the argument.
Gerunds: A gerund is a “verb + ing” used as a noun.i.e Swimming etc.
A. Use gerunds in the following.
- Always check the oil, before starting the car.
- The house looked beautiful after decorating with lights.
- Praising all alike is praising none.
- I cannot go on doing nothing.
- Collecting wealth ruins health.
- Seeing is believing.
- Giving is better than receiving.
- Talking like this is foolish.
- She loves reading books.
Gerund phrase: A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and related words.
B. Underline the gerund phrase in the sentences below.
- Brisk walking
- Playing bridge.
- Promising Sami
- Standing during a two- hour train
- Sailing on the lake
- Volunteering at the hospital
- Watching quiz shows on TV.
- Taking out the garbage.