Umer Bin Al Khattab RA
Umrah ibn al-Khattab was the second and probably the greatest Muslim caliph. He was a young contemporary of Prophet Muhammad and was born in Mecca, the city of the Prophet. The exact year of his birth is unknown. It is estimated that he was born in 586 A.D.
Muhammad and his new religion. He was the worst enemy. Then he entered the realm of Islam and became the strongest supporter of it.
The conversion of St. Pak to Christianity is similar. He became a close adviser to the Prophet Muhammad and lived with the same honour throughout his life.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died in 632 AH. He had not appointed a successor.
This eliminated the possibility of a power struggle and in general Abu Bakr was recognized as the first caliph of the Muslims (successor to the Prophet).
Abu Bakr was a successful caliph, but he died two years later. He chose Umar ibn al-Khattab as his successor (who was also the father-in-law of the Prophet). The possibility was ruled out. In 634, Umar became the caliph. This government lasted till 644. Then an Iranian slave martyred him in Medina.
On his deathbed, he proposed the formation of a six-member council to decide on his successor. Once again, the armed struggle for power was ended. The council elected Usman as the third caliph in 644 AD. Remained in power from 665 to
During the ten-year caliphate of Umar, the Arabs achieved very important victories.
The Arab armies invaded Syria and Palestine, which were part of the Byzantine Empire. In 636, the Arabs defeated the Byzantine armies in a mock battle. In the same year, Damascus was conquered. Two years later, Jerusalem also entered the Arab realm. The Arabs had subjugated all of Palestine and Syria and were advancing towards Turkey. In 639, the Arab armies conquered Egypt, which was an important part of the Byzantine Empire.
Within three years, the Arabs completed the conquest of Egypt.
The Arab invasions of Iraq were part of the Sassanid Empire of the Iranians. The Arab invasions began before the caliphate of Umar. By then, all of Iraq had become part of the Arab realm. Not only that, the Arabs invaded Iran and decisively defeated the armies of the last Sassanid emperor.
By the time of Umar’s death in 644, most of western Iran had been conquered by the Arabs. However, the death of Umar did not affect the pace of conquests of the Arab armies. While in the West they extended to North Africa.
As important as the victories of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) are, so is their maintenance.
Although most of the Iranian population entered the realm of Islam, Ali al-Akhras was liberated from Arab slavery. However, Syria, Iraq and Egypt could not do so. They have completely adapted to the Arab civilization and the situation is still the same.
Undoubtedly, Omar had to devise special strategies to manage this great empire which his armies had conquered.
He decided that the Arabs in these conquered areas had been living with special military concessions and that they would be stationed in military towns separate from the locals. They will be allowed to remain. In particular, no attempt will be made to forcibly convert them to Islam. (These measures show that the Arab conquests were the result of wars fought in a spirit of nationalism rather than a holy war.)
However, the religious element cannot be ignored in this whole process).
The achievements of Umar (RA) proved to be effective. The name of Umar (RA) is very important in the promotion of Islam after (Hazrat) Muhammad. Without these rapid victories, the spread of Islam might not be possible today. Most of the areas that were conquered became part of Arab civilization.
Obviously, the real motivator of all these successes was (Hazrat) Muhammad. But it would be a big mistake to just look at the age part. His victories were not the result of (Hazrat) Muhammad’s movement. The expansion would have taken place, but this great expansion would not have been possible without the brilliant leadership of Omar.
In this regard, some people must be surprised that the personality of Umar ibn al-Khattab is not so well known in the West.
However, here in this list, he has been assigned a higher status than celebrities like Charlie Magni and Julius Caesar. More important than that were those led by Caesar or Charlie Magni.