Sindh Class 9 Notes Pakistan Studies Chapter 5 Resources of Pakistan

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Sindh Class 9 Notes Pakistan Studies

Sindh Class 9 Notes Pakistan Studies Chapter 5 Resources of Pakistan
Resources of Pakistan

Q1) Describe the importance of resources.


Resources are known as an essential input to the economic process and economic development. These are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit, which may include increased wealth, meeting needs or wants proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well-being. There are mainly two types of resources, i.e.

  • Human resources
  • Natural resources

Human Resources:

Human resources are defined as the capacity and capability of human beings for doing certain works. The various professions differentiate human beings from each other such as agriculture, mining, architecture, business, communication, government, service etc. Thus, all these professions combined together are known as human resources and directly influence the economics and the social life of the world as a whole and the countries individually.

Natural Resources:

Natural resources are defined as naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified form. It includes soil, timber, oil, minerals, air, water, wind energy, iron, and coal and other goods taken from the Earth. Natural resources are known as the source of production. It includes soil, timber, oil, minerals, air, water, wind energy, iron, and coal and other goods taken from the Earth.

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Importance of Resources in National Development:

Economic development stabilizes the position and status of a country. Resources are the ultimate source of achievements and goals of economic development. Natural and human resources, both renewable and non-renewable, are a part of the real wealth of nations. They together contribute to increasing income and economic development and reducing poverty. Therefore, the importance of Resources in National development is:

  1. They are the real wealth of a nation. Those countries where human or natural resources are in plenty have shown tremendous progress and prosperity. However, progress and prosperity depend on the wise and appropriate utilization of these resources. There are many countries in the world where both human and natural resources are available but due to the lack of planning and hard work, the benefits from these resources are quite meager.
  2. Human and material resources help in building a strong defense for the country. All material requirements for strong military build-up are provided through natural resources. Human resources help utilize these resources.
  3. Resources are the means of high prestige for a country. For example, all western countries attract the people of developing countries to take advantage of the rich resources of the developed countries.
  4. They help in meeting the material requirements of the country, which include necessities, comforts, and luxuries of life.
  5. They help in flourishing trade and business. Those countries, which are rich in resources, have captured world trade and have developed their economies.
  6. They provide employment opportunities to the people. It is because of these resources that millions of people go to Gulf countries and Middle East countries for employment. Similarly, European countries, USA, Canada, and Australia have the attraction for better employment opportunities.
  7. They provide people with ample food for a living and other amenities of life and help in building national institutions.


The natural and human resources of a country should go hand in hand with each other if a viable economic system is to be established. They play a significant role in the country’s economic development and provide the foundation upon which communities are created and upon which all our lives depend. The government and private sectors should involve a huge investment in the evolution of natural and human resources.

Q.2) Name different kinds of resources.


The resource is an essential input to the economic process. These resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. There are mainly two types of resources, i.e.

1)    Human Resources:

Human resources are defined as the capacity and capability of human beings for doing certain works. The various professions differentiate human beings from each other. Thus, all these professions combined together are known as human resources.

2)    Natural Resources:

Natural resources are defined as naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified form. It includes soil, timber, oil, minerals, air, water, wind energy, iron, and coal and other goods taken from the Earth.

Q.3) What are the advantages of forests?


Forests are an integral part of a country’s economy and are a great source of natural resources. According to experts, the area under forests should be at least 25 to 30% of the total area of the country. However, the forest area is only 4.5% in Pakistan. The Provincial distribution in Pakistan indicates 2.7% of land under forests in Punjab, 4.2% in Sindh, 15.6% in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and 2.1% in Balochistan. The climate of Pakistan is too dry for the growth of forests except in the northern hilly area and sub-mountain hills.

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Advantages of Forests:

The forest area in Pakistan is being reduced due to the ruthless cutting of forests, use of land for construction of houses and due to river erosion each year. It is necessary that more land is put under forests and unnecessary woodcutting should be stopped. The advantages of forests are:

  1. Forests provide timber which is used for building houses and furniture and as well as using for firewood. The sale of timber products of forests adds to the revenue of the government.
  2. The forests are one of the important resources for the country and meet many requirements like wood, timber, herbs etc.
  3. The forests help in reducing waterlogging and salinity and help in restoring the fertility of the land.
  4. Forests help make pharmaceuticals, rayon and other useful materials, i.e. gums, resin, turpentine oil are made from the raw material produced in forests. 
  5. The forests are the source of wildlife. Some Somes like lions, leopards, bears, etc., are found in the forests.
  6. Forests provide raw materials to various industries like the sports goods industry, paper industry, and furniture industry. It has vital importance for industrial development.
  7. The forests protect both human beings and natural vegetation from the onslaught of violent windstorms.
  8. The forests do not allow the excess of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere because they need this gas to take it and release oxygen, necessary for human life.
  9. Trees provide food and shelter to animals and birds. These also provide breeding centres for birds and animals. Wildlife like deer, tigers, and peacocks also have commercial value.
  10. The forests serve as excursion resorts and provide recreation for the people.
  11. Rivers and streams receive water that flows from steep mountain rocks. Forests on these slopes restrict the speed, which would otherwise produce floods.
  12. Forests keep the environment pleasant because they get moisture from the earth through their roots and spread it in the air through air leaves. Which makes the environment beautiful and attracts tourists.
  13. Forests can fight the increasing greenhouse effect, which is a threat to all sorts of life on earth.


Forests are that natural vegetation that has covered a large part of the land. They are widely distributed in different parts of the world and play an important role in the progress of a country. The ministry of the environment should organize and implement some forestry campaigns and policies to spread the forest area in the country. In addition, the government should encourage industry and the private sector to raise commercial plantations on suitable unused state lands.

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Q.4) Name the mineral resources of Pakistan.


 Mineral resources are one of the natural resources of a country and are obtained from under the surface of the earth. The important mineral resources of Pakistan are:

1)    Mineral oil:

Mineral oil is refined in the oil refineries and used to get petrol, kerosene oil, diesel, plastic, candle, baseline etc.

2)    Natural gas:

It is used as fuel for vehicles and household purposes.

3)    Coal:

Coal is not found in very good quality in Pakistan and before the availability of oil and gas, coal was used to run factories and railway engines in Pakistan.

4)    Iron ore:

Iron ore is used for making iron, steel, machines, and different kinds of tools.

5)    Chromite:

Chromite is used in the manufacture of good quality steel, stainless steel, and engineering tools.

6)    Copper:

Copper is used for making electric goods, making utensils, decorative articles, ornaments, electric wire, and machine parts.

7)    Gypsum:

It is used for the manufacturing of fertilizer, cement, paper, paints, and rubber industries.

8)    Salt:

Salt is used for cooking, like caustic soda, laundry soda, and in materials used in textile etc.

9)    Limestone:

Limestone is used as raw material in the manufacture of cement and for making glass, soap, paper, paints, and bleaching powder.

10)    Marble:

It is a decorative stone used for flooring, exterior decoration of buildings and making decoration pieces.

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Q.5) What are the agricultural problems of Pakistan?


Agricultural problems:

Pakistan has an agro-based economy and agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Pakistan. More than 70% of the people are involved in agriculture. Although old farming methods have been replaced with new technologies and methods, our agriculture sector remains underdeveloped due to many reasons. These are:

1)    Low Literacy Rate:

The literacy rate of the country is quite lowThe majority of our farmers are not educated and do not know about modern farming. They have little knowledge about the use of insecticides, selection of good quality seeds and proper use of fertilizer. They only believe in and use the traditional methods of cultivation, which they learned from their elders, which resulted in the low yield from their land.

2)    Non-mechanized Cultivation:

Our farmers are still using the old wooden plough, animal dung fertilizers, uncertified local seeds, and old methods of cultivation. This is the reason that per acre yield is not increasing although our farmers are hardworking and laborious. Tractor, tube well, natural fertilizer, certified quality seeds and disciplined sowing of seeds are the necessary elements of mechanized cultivation but the farmers are hesitant to adopt mechanized farming either due to conservative ideas or due to lack of financial resources.

3)    Limit of Agricultural Land:

The agricultural land of Pakistan is divided into two groups. The property owner group has vast areas of land but they do not cultivate themselves, hence vast areas of land remain uncultivated and barren. The second group has canal-irrigated areas of land which is not more than 12-15 acres per family/person. They cannot take on mechanized farming in small areas, which results in low production.

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4)    Soil Erosion:

Soil erosion is caused by rains and other natural agents, like windstorms, floods, snowfall, and earthquakes. They remove the fertile upper crust particles of earth. Floods have become very common in Pakistan and every year it destroys a considerable part of growing crops and causes erosion of fertile surface soil. Almost one million acres of agricultural land has already been destroyed by land erosion.

5)    Water Logging and Salinity:

Waterlogging and salinity affect the performance of farming. It makes the land unproductive because it blocks the growth of plants. Due to waterlogging and salinity, the large canal areas in the province of Punjab and Sind have become useless. Besides this, every year a lot of landfalls are victim to river erosion, which decreases the fertile area.

6)    Insufficient means of Transport:

There is a lack of infrastructural facilities, particularly in the rural areas. Due to the insufficient means of transport, agricultural products do not reach the market in time and good condition. Good transport facilities are also needed to ensure a timely supply of seeds and fertilizers. These factors badly discourage the development of agricultural products.

7)    Plant diseases:

Plant diseases kill plants or make them weak. According to an estimate, this lessens crop productivity by 25 per cent.

8)    Insufficient means of Transport:

The rural areas are the main part of agriculture production. However, a large quantity of production does not reach the market due to the insufficient means of transport.


Agriculture has contributed to Pakistan’s development in various ways. However, due to the unsuitable conditions of the countryside and the non-availability of essential means and sources, the strength of agriculture production is minimized. Therefore, the government should take effective steps and should announce policies, which raise the productivity of agriculture to increase economic development.

Q.6) What are the sources of agriculture in Pakistan?

Pakistan is an agricultural country. Agriculture refers to human activities, which are practised to use the natural resources of a country to maintain human life. Pakistan’s agriculture contributes significantly to other sectors and is the main source of growth of the economy. The importance of this sector is manifold as it feeds people, provides the raw material for industry and is the base of our foreign trade. The main sources of agriculture in Pakistan are soil, climatic conditions, forestry, machinery, water, use of fertilizers, crops, and livestock such as dairy farming, cattle farming etc.

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Q.8) How are human and other resources interdependent?


The natural resources of a country play an important role in the development of a country. Human resources and other resources have their independent and separate value as well as utility. However, these resources are interdependent. Human beings have needs for living, which include necessities of life like food, clothing etc. These needs can only be fulfilled with the help of other resources, which include agricultural and mineral resources. Human efforts play an important role to discover and obtain benefit from these resources. If human knowledge, expertise, and labour are excluded, the fruits of other resources cannot be obtained. The natural resources of oil, gas, gold etc. have been converted into and given value because man discovered them and used them for its benefit. Thus, human resources and natural resources play an important role in the progress of a country. Therefore, both of these resources are interrelated.

Q.9) Write a note on moderation in life.


Moderation in life is known as “to live within the available means.” Moderation is a way of proper thinking, behaviour, and acting. A person can be called a moderate who makes an account of himself or herself and then decides to follow a path for his future life.

Moderation demands a reasonable attitude towards actions in all economic, social, and political matters. It brings peace and prosperity to the society of a country. Over-ambitiousness is the cause of all evil practices. By following the moderate line of action, one would lead a comfortable life.

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Pakistani people are highly emotional. They either completely indulge or take no care at all, which results in total indifference towards their responsibilities and duties. This has made society backwards. Our extreme passions and sentiments have been labelled as an emotional nation. The emotions, sometimes, may bring temporary success but in the end prove counterproductive. Moreover, it is well known to all that living within one’s resources is a sign of prosperity. Those who exercise self-control and restraint in moderation lead a happy life.

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