Rawalpindi board English 10th Notes Chapter 12

Rawalpindi board English 10th Notes Chapter 12 (Population Growth and World Food Supplies) Include review questions, solved exercises, important board questions, Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, MCQs, and grammar.

Rawalpindi board English 10th Notes Chapter 12


Q.A) Give meaning of each word as used in the text.

  • incessant
  • adequate
  • integrity
  • declining
  • pesticides
  • massive
  • sustained
  • eroded
  • unprecedented


  • Not Ceasing
  • Able to fulfil a need or requirement without being outstanding
  • Unity
  • To weaken
  • A chemical used for killing pests, especially insects and rodents
  • Relatively intensive or large
  • To maintain or prolong
  • Weather-beaten
  • Something that has never happened

Q.B) Make sentences of the following words.

  • ample
  • depleted
  • critical
  • current
  • enhance
  • optimum


  • There is ample space for our piano in the living room.
  • He felt completely depleted of his power
  • The boss was very critical about the report and wanted it to be revised.
  • The committee is reviewing the current arrangement/situation.
  • You could enhance the value of your house considerably by having it repainted.
  • The hot sun enables the grapes to reach optimum ripeness.

Reading Comprehension

Which areas are most affected by incessant growth in population?

The developing countries are the most affected areas by incessant growth in population. Due to increasing number of world population, per capita availability of food grain has been declining the past 25 years.

Why are developing countries going to suffer more due to overpopulation?

The developing countries are going to suffer more due to over-population because the per capita availability of food grains has been declining for the past 25 years. The population is increasing every passing minute but there is no significant increase in the agricultural production of the crops or the food supplies to meet the pressing demand of the population.

What is the major cause of food shortages and malnutrition?

One of the major cause of food shortage and malnutrition is the factor of overpopulation all over the world. On average, about a quarter of a million people are added to the world whereas the per capita availability of food grains has been declining for the past 25 years. The population is increasing and the production is decreasing that’s why food shortage and malnutrition is one of the serious issues of these days.


How are water resources under great stress?

Water resources, especially for irrigation, are under great stress due to increased requirement and excessive withdrawal of water from rivers, lakes, and aquifers by the populous cities, states, and countries of the world every year.

What is the effect of depletion of fossil energy?

The depletion of fossil energy is definitely has a direct effect on the life of all living beings that survive on earth. As it is one of the major resources for food production therefore if it is reduced then it directly affects the production and availability of food products that are already on verge due to increase in world’s population.

What is the limitation of improved technology?

Although improved technology has a number of advantages in energy production, unfortunately, it is unable to produce an unlimited flow of those vital natural resources that are the best available raw materials for sustained agricultural production.


How can a sufficient food supply be made possible for the future generation?

Sufficient food supply for future generation can be made possible in a way that we need to preserve our important natural resources including water, soil, plants, and animals. We also need to control the population.

What strategies should be adopted for a safe future?

We can adopt strategies for safe future by controlling the world population, and preserving the natural resources including energies like water, soil, plants and animals. And we should also keep our surrounding clean.


Q.B) Replace each adverb clause by an adverb or adverb phrase.

1. I have not been well since I returned from Murree.
2. I am glad that he has recovered from his illness.
3. As soon as I saw the cobra I ran away.
4. He may go home after his work is finished.
5. I did not pay her, as I had no money with me.
1. I have not been well since my return from Murree.
2. I am glad that I have recovered from my illness.
3. When I saw the cobra I ran away.
4. He may go home after finishing his work.
5. I did not pay her, as I had no money with me.


Q.C) Underline the adverb clauses in the following sentences and state whether each is an adverb clause of time, place, reason, purpose, result, manner, comparison, condition or concession.

1. The frightened child ran as fast as he could.
2. Even if they hurry, they may not get there on time.
3. The player is out of the match because he has hurt himself.
4. If she recovers quickly, she will join the team.
5. The speaker was so absorbed in his speech that he forgot the time.
6. She switched on the television so that she could listen to the news.
7. They left before the concert ended.
8. He acted as if he owned the car.
9. Where the road bends dangerously, be more careful.
10. He will get a good job when he graduates.

1. The frightened child ran as fast as he could. ( Adverb of Comparison)
2. Even if they hurry, they may not get there on time. ( Adverb of manner)
3. The player is out of the match because he has hurt himself. (Adverb clause of reason)
4. If she recovers quickly, she will join the team. (Adverb clause of condition)
5. The speaker was so absorbed in his speech that he forgot the time.
6. She switched on the television so that she could listen to the news. (Adverb Clause of purpose)
7. They left before the concert ended. ( Adverb clause of time)
8. He acted as if he owned the car. (Adverb clause of concession)
9. Where the road bends dangerously, be more careful. (Adverb clause of place)
10. He will get a good job when he graduates. ( Adverb clause of time)

Writing Skills

Q.A) Write a précis of paragraph 6.

Better technology can help in better production of resources, but it cannot make resources for continuous agricultural production. Fertilizers can enhance fertilization but cannot produce layer of topsoil. A better agricultural system depends on maintaining the purity of biodiversity, i.e . plants and animals.

Q.B) Write an essay on “Over Population”.

Malthus stated that in the race between increasing population and increasing production, population must eventually win.

Those of us who decline to accept this pessimistic view recognize the difficulty of the practical problem of meeting the needs of an ever-expanding population. Population growth is a complex issue that directly or indirectly impacts all aspects of our lives and the conditions under which we live – from the environment and global stability to women’s health and empowerment. Population control — or population welfare, if you want to be genteel — is the buzzword today. Many countries of the world are currently experiencing problems caused by rapidly growing populations in urban areas, and both governments and individuals have a duty to find ways to overcome these problems.

The fast growth in population can be attributed to good health, lowering of mortality rate, combating famine when and where it occurs. But in realistic term overpopulation can lead to overcrowding and poor quality housing in many large cities. That could cause significant health problems, resulting in illness, such as bronchitis or pneumonia. Another serious consequence of overcrowding is a rising crime rate as poor living conditions may lead young people in particular to take desperate measures and turn to crime or drugs. It would cause problem of accommodation and unemployment as well if the productivity rate is lesser than consumer rate.

In terms of solutions, I believe the government should be largely responsible. Firstly, it is vital that the state provides essential housing and healthcare for all its citizens. Secondly, setting up community projects to help foster more community spirit and help keep young people off the street is a good idea. For example, youth clubs or evening classes for teenagers would keep them occupied. Finally, more effective policing of inner city areas would also be beneficial.

Naturally, individuals should also act responsibly to address these problems, and the motivation to do this would hopefully arise if the measures described above are put into place by the government. This is because it will encourage people to have more pride in their own community and improve the situation.

Therefore, it is clear that the problems caused by overpopulation in urban areas are very serious. Yet if governments and individuals share a collective responsibility, then it may well become possible to offer some solutions.

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