Short question and long question, Pakistan studies 9th Notes Chapter 2 Making of Pakistan.
Making of Pakistan Pakistan Studies 9th Notes Chapter 2
Q.2 i) What events widened the distance between Muslims & Hindus?
The Muslim leaders tried to guide the Muslims after the defeat in the war of independence 1857, through the establishment of institutions like Aligarh, Deoband and Nadwat-ul-Ulama. These institutions developed the Muslims. Political efforts were started in Indo- Pak Subcontinent after the establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885. Muslims started the struggle after the Urdu-Hindi controversy in 1867, to protect their rights with the formation of Muslim League in 1906. Muslims also tried to develop an understanding with Hindus and Indian National Congress. Lucknow Pact of 1916 is a great example of it. Khilafat Movement in the decade of 1920 brought them closer but the Chora Chari incident, Hindu Muslim riots in Kohat and the issue of rebellion of Mopla Tribes brought the gap between Hindus and Muslims. The pro Hindu movements like Shudhi and Sanghatton further widened the distance between Muslim and Hindus.
Q.2 ii) What proposals were given by Cripps mission?
The British sent a Cabinet Member Sir Stafford Cripps in India on 22 March 1942 to find a possibility of compromise between the Indian Political parties. He presented some important proposals, which were called as ‘Cripps Proposals’. The important proposals were:
- After a war, a constituent assembly would be formed, the members of Lower house or Provincial Assembly through the principles of proportional representation will elect members.
- Constitution made by Assembly would be acceptable to the British Government.
- General elections would be arranged as soon as possible in the provinces as the war ended.
- During the war, total responsibility of defense would be in the hands of the Britsh Government.
- The Union was to be given a dominion status.
- The provinces would be given the right of establishing their own governments.
- The princely states could also participate in the Legislative Assembly.
- The suggestions were to be accepted or rejected as a whole and there would be no amendments.
Q.2 iii) Why the Congress and Muslim league rejected the Cripps Mission proposals?
The British Government sent a Mission to the Subcontinent in 1942, which was headed by Sir Stafford Cripps. The Purpose of this Mission was to unite all the political parties and to create of an Indian Union after the termination of the war. However, Congress and Muslim League rejected the Cripps Proposals. The Congress rejected these on the ground that there were no immediate steps for Indian Independence. They also opposed the clause in which the provinces had an option to stay out of the proposed Union. The Muslim League also rejected the scheme because it did not concede the demand of Pakistan in clear terms.
Q.2 iv) Why the Shimla Conference was unsuccessful?
The Viceroy Lord Wavell arranged to hold a conference at Shimla in June 1945 in order to place his proposals for the solution of the constitution problem of subcontinent before the Indian leaders. He invited the two main political leaders of Congress and Muslim League, i.e. Quaid-e-Azam and Gandhi. At that time, both of the parties met with severe differences regarding representation of Hindu Muslim proportion and nomination of representatives of other sects. The Congress claimed that it was a national party and represented all Indian communities including the Muslims. However, Jinnah took the stand that the Congress could appoint only Hindu members to the Executive Council and cleared that Muslim League had won all the elections during the last two years on the Muslim seats. Lord Wavell acknowledge that four members should be taken from the Muslim League but Jinnah defended that it was the right of the Muslim League to appoint all the five members on the seats reserved for Muslims in the Executive Council. Therefore, the Shimla Conference failed to achieve anything because of the disagreement of Quaid-e-Azam and Lord Wavell on the matter of nomination of Muslim Members for the New Executive Council.
Q.2 v) How did the Muslim League get success in the general elections of 1945-46?
The Viceroy Lord Wavell announced that the elections of Central and Provincial Assemblies would be held in the winter in 1945. He also declared that after the elections the political parties would constitute Ministers in the Provinces. It was a challenge for the Muslim League to prove that the Muslim League is the only organization of the Muslims of India. During the election, Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League addressed the Muslims and said that if they want to see the future of the Muslims safe, then they should give hands to Muslim League for Pakistan otherwise they will go into permanent slavery of the Congress. As a result of elections, Muslim league won all the seats in the Central Assembly, which were reserved for the Muslims and 446 out of 495 Muslim seats in the provincial assembly. Thus, the Muslim league won these elections in the Muslim constituencies and the congress nominated candidates for the Muslim seats was badly defeated.
Q.2 vi) What demands were given in the session of legislature in 1946?
The All India Muslims Legislators Convention was held in Delhi in April 1946. In which more than 500 members from all India participated in the convention. Some of the minority members also participated in the convention. In the beginning session, Quaid-e-Azam and Hussain Shaheed Saharwardi presented their demands. These were:
- Quaid-e-Azam stressed upon the demand for Pakistan in detail and pointed out the dangers to be faced by the Muslims in case of Congress rule.
- Hussain Shaheed Saharwarti from Bengal submitted a resolution and demanded Pakistan which consists of Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan and Sindh in the North West Asam and Bengal in the Northeast.
- He also demanded that separate legislative assemblies should be formed from Muslim Pakistan and Hindu’s Hindustan to prepare the constitution for both the countries because neither united India nor one legislative Assembly is acceptable to Muslims.
Q.2 vii) How the formation of interim Government: was made in 1946-47?
The formation of an interim government for the implementation of the cabinet mission plan was an important step because the Viceroy Lord Wavell knew the fact that any step taken without the consent of Congress and Muslim League would push the country into a civil war. Therefore, he started talks with both the parties for the establishment of combined interim government and announced the formation of the interim government. Muslim League accepted the demands of the Viceroy and decided to join the Interim Government whereas Congress rejected the plan by showing her observations. According to the promise of Lord Wavell, the interim government would have to be formed by representatives of Muslim League without Congress but Viceroy and labour party government of Britain were not willing to form the government without Congress because of their financial and commercial interests. Muslim League took the Rast Iqdaam against the conduct of Congress dual policy of the government and rejected the Cabinet Mission Plan. On the other side, the Viceroy of India and the British Government were insistent on the formation of the interim government. Thus, Lord Wavell gave the invitation to Nehru for the establishment of Interim Government.
Q.2 viii) How the Congress felt that they have done a mistake of giving Finance Ministry to Muslim League?
The formation of the Interim Government after the Elections of 1945-46 was an important step. During the formation, the Congress gave the representation to the non-Muslims of the Muslim League in 1946 because it wanted to keep away the Muslim League from the Government. Meanwhile, the Government of India felt that peace could not be established without the Muslim League. Therefore, the government invited the Muslim League to join it. Likewise, Muslim League felt that it could save the rights of Muslims in difficult time within the government effectively. Therefore, Muslim League joined the Interim Government and Liaquat Ali Khan acquired the position of finance minister. Thus, all the Congress Ministers were on the mercy of Finance department and credits of the last budget of United India presented by the Liaquat Ali Khan was the last straw on the camels’ back because taxes were levied on the industrialists to meet the government expenditures. Further, the finance minister also proposed the inquiry commission to check the tax evasion, which hit hard the Congress Ministries. Thus, under the change and strict political condition, Congress felt that they have done a mistake of giving the finance department to the Muslim League.
Q.2 ix) Why the Quaid-e-Azam was given the title of “Ambassador of Hindu Muslim?
The Political movements were introduced in India at the beginning of the 20th century. Congress dominated over all these movements. In these state of affairs, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah not only organized the Muslims in their political struggle but also brought them to their destination (Pakistan). He joined congress in 1906 and started to take part in practical politics. When Muslim League brought change in her aims and adopted a way of thinking to take part in Government, he joined Muslim league in 1913 and worked tirelessly to bring the two Nations together. Therefore, his efforts earned him the title of “The Ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity”.
Q.2 x) What methods adopted by Quaid-e-Azam of being the best leader?
Quaid-e-Azam was a great leader and made many efforts for the betterment of the Muslims of India. He made many efforts for Muslim’s separate country. Therefore, he fought the war of independence within the limits of law for his whole life and never went to prison. It proves that he acted according to the law and struggled for the achievement of the rights of Muslims. In 1928, when Congress ignored the demands of Muslims in institutional proposals, he gave his 14 points in 1929 in response.
He led the Muslims with more prudence and regulation. During the whole movement, he never acted against law. He always challenged the British, Congress and other leaders with the weapon of arguments against violence. He always consulted his colleagues and workers before taking a decision and once he took a decision, he stood on that and never shown any weakness. He was abiding of the promise. Quaid-e-Azam led the freedom movement and Pakistan movement in a way which has no example. Therefore, he is remembered the best leader in the world because he had all the qualities of a good leader and he gave the independence to a country without any war.
Pakistan Studies Notes for Class 9 Chapter 2 Long Questions
Q.3 i) What do you know about Lahore resolution. What is its importance in Pakistan movement?
After the War of Independence, Muslims were facing terrible attitude by the Hindus and the British. They had been making many efforts for recognizing themselves as a nation but Congress did not give any importance to the Muslims and broke all the rules, which were concluded as a compromise between the two political parties. The Hindu Leaders proved that the Congress was not a national organization. Later, after the elections of 1937, the fear of Hindu domination compelled the Muslims to think about the partition of the subcontinent. Therefore, the Muslim League held the annual session of meeting at Minto Park, Lahore from 22 to 24 March 1940. Thousands of Muslim political workers and Muslim leaders from all provinces of India participated in this meeting. Approximately more than one lakh people were present. This resolution was introduced by Maulvi Fazal-ul-Haq from Bengal. This meeting was remarked as “Lahore Resolution.” Later it was called “Pakistan Resolution” because Pakistan came into being on this resolution.
Important Points of Resolution:
The Resolution declared that:
“No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign.”
Importance of the Lahore Resolution:
At first British rulers did not give any importance to the Lahore Resolution but later on a disciplined campaign of the Muslims under the guidance of Quaid-e-Azam, they accepted the demand for Pakistan. The adaptation of the Lahore Resolution was a significant landmark in the history of Muslim India and Pakistan Movement. The importance of the Lahore Resolution in the history of Pakistan Movement is:
- Through the Resolution, the Muslims of India set their national objectives and expressed their determination to make all efforts for the achievement of these objectives.
- The Representatives of the Muslims from all over India attended the Lahore session. Events in the following year proved that Muslims had full confidence in the Muslim League.
- The Muslim League in the election manifesto took up Pakistan as the core issue. The Muslim rallied around the Muslim League in great numbers and the same party which had failed to attract people in the 1937 elections, now emerged as the sole representative of the Muslim Nation all over India.
- The Lahore Resolution gave a direction to the political struggle of the Muslims, and within a short span of seven years’ time, the Muslims were able to achieve their cherished goal; which is to get an independent Muslim State, Pakistan.
Reaction to Lahore Resolution:
After the approval of the Lahore Resolution, some people started its opposition and the scheme was declared impracticable. The Hindu Press gave it the name of Pakistan Resolution. Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League adopted this name. Thus, in 1946, in a meeting, the Muslim elected representatives demanded the independent homeland consist of Muslim majority areas with the name of Pakistan.
The Lahore Resolution was a turning point in the history of the Muslims of the subcontinent. They rooted their own way and direction leading the destination of complete independence. The World War II forced the British to search a permanent solution to the political problem of India. Since the Congress was in a better position to clear its terms to the British Rule, therefore, it was also necessary for the Muslims to clear their demands and rights. Thus, the guidance of Quaid-e-Azam led the Muslims to get an independent Muslim State on 14 August 1947.
Q.3 ii) What is the Cabinet Mission plan. What are its aims and objectives?
Cabinet Mission is an important turning point in the freedom movement of Muslims of Indo Pak Sub-continent. At the end of March 1946, British Government sent three senior British Cabinet members in India to preserve the unity of the Indian Federation, which included Sir Stafford Cripps, Mr. A.V. Alexander, and Lord Pethick Lawrence. The Cabinet Mission discussed the matters with Congress and Muslim League. Quaid-e-Azam represented the Muslims and insisted on the establishment of Pakistan while Congress insisted on United India. The Cabinet Mission was convinced upon the causes of separation from Hindus and opposed the idea of Pakistan on the basis that it is impossible in practice. Several sessions of discussion were held between Muslim League, Congress, and Members of British cabinet but the parties could not agree upon any formula.
Cabinet mission proposals:
In May 1946, the Cabinet mission announced the proposal and cleared that these were final, and could not be changed. Congress and Muslim league were free to accept or reject the proposal as a whole. These proposals were divided into two parts, one the short term and second the long-term proposals, which were:
1) According to the short-term proposals, the party, which would accept the proposals, would be invited to be included in the Interim Government whereas it was mentioned in long-term proposals that all provinces of India would be divided into three groups.
2) India would be a Union comprising British India and the Princely states. Union government would control foreign affairs, communications, and taxation.
3) Provinces would be divided into three groups formed under the following formula:
i. Group A:
This included the Hindu Majority Provinces i.e. C-P, Madras, Bombay, United Provinces, Uresa and Bihar.
ii. Group B:
Group B included the Muslim Majority provinces i.e. Punjab, N.W.F.P, Baluchistan, and Sindh.
iii. Group C:
This group also included the Muslim majority provinces of Assam and Bengal.
4) There will be a central executive consisting of all the groups having defense, communication and finance departments. If a province desired separation from any group it will have the right of separation after ten years.
The reaction of the Political Parties towards the Cabinet Mission Proposals:
Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslims League accepted the Cabinet Mission’s proposals after showing some observations. However, claim for Pakistan was not accepted in these proposals but there was an ambiguous concept of the making of Pakistan that the Province could separate from the center after ten years. Congress was very happy on the point that Cabinet Mission had rejected the demand for partition of India. However, regarding consent of provinces in the formation of group and limitation of powers of legislative Assembly, Gandhi gave a statement in Bombay after becoming the president of the Congress on 10 July 1946 that Congress would be free from clutches of the agreement when she would join the constituent assembly. Jawahir Lal Nehru further stated that the Congress would be free to make a change in the Cabinet Mission Plan. Such statements of Congress put the Quaid-e-Azam and other leaders into doubts and compelled the Muslim League and Quaid-e-Azam to reconsider the decision of acceptance of Cabinet Mission Plan. Thus, Muslim League called the meeting of Muslim League Council on 29 July 1946 wherein a resolution was placed to withdraw the approval of Cabinet Mission Plan. Furthermore, on the appeal of Quaid-e-Azam, “Youm-e-Rast Iqdam” was observed on 16 August 1946 against the wrong policies of the British Government and in favour of the claim for Pakistan. Thus, in this way, the Cabinet Mission Plan failed to achieve any successful results.
The Cabinet Mission Plan was a comprehensive plan for the solution of Indian problems. However, due to the conspiracies of Congress, it failed to get its objective that was to create an understanding between the Muslims and the Hindu leaders. It made the British government realized that it was not possible to unite them because of the differences and divergence between the political organizations and the Muslim of India were a distinct nation from Hindus.
Q.3 iii) What is the 3rd June Plan? How according to this plan, the partition of India and establishment of Pakistan took place.
The British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee made a statement in the parliament on 20 February 1947 that the British Government wanted to divide the subcontinent by June 1948. He replaced the viceroy Lord Wavell by Lord Mountbatten With this declaration. The new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten came to India and tried his best to keep India unite but could not succeed. Therefore, he made a plan after the detail consultation with the leaders of all leading parties. He was assured to make a peaceful transfer of power from the British to the Indians. He began to hold talks with the political leaders of India on the partition plan. Both the parties approved the proposal of partition. Thus, Mountbatten flew to England to get the plan approved by the British Government. The Viceroy announced the plan on 3 June 1947 and the next day he declared that on 15 August 1947, the power would be transferred to the newly born states of India and Pakistan.
Main points of Third June 1947 Plan:
The British government made the decision of partition the subcontinent. The Government settled the details and developed the programme regarding the future of various provinces and states by acknowledging the principled stand of the establishment of two states. The main points of the Third June Plan were:
1) The Punjab and Bengal Province:
The Provincial Legislative Assemblies of Punjab and Bengal were to meet in two groups, i.e. Muslim majority districts and non-Muslim majority districts. If any of the two decided in favor of the division of the province, then the Governor-General would appoint a boundary commission to demarcate the Province.
2) The North-West Frontier Province:
A referendum would be held in the North-West Frontier Province to ascertain whether they wished to join Pakistan or India. The Government that is formed after the referendum would settle the political issues of the Tribal Areas.
Sindh Assembly would decide the future state of the province through the majority of the vote. It would be decided whether the province wished to join Pakistan or India. Furthermore, the European members of the Sindh Assembly would not have the right to vote.
The Quetta municipality and the Shahi Jirga would decide the fate of Baluchistan. The official members would not be included in voting.
5) District Sylhet:
District of Sylhet in Assam had Muslim majority population. According to the Plan, it was decided to hold a referendum in Sylhet. If the majority of the people would decide to join the East Bengal, they would form a part of Pakistan.
6) Non-Muslim Majority Provinces:
The District Sylhet of Assam will decide through referendum either to join Muslim majority Bengal or not.
Partition of India and Establishment of Pakistan:
According to the 3 June plan, the Provinces of Punjab and Bengal were decided to divide. Therefore, a British lawyer, Radcliff was appointed as Chairman unanimously to demarcate boundaries. On 17 August 1947, Radcliff award was declared which gave some Muslim majority areas, e.g. distinct Gurdaspur to India while Non-Muslims were in majority in only one Tehsil Pathankot of District Gurdaspur. The Headworks of rivers were given to India to irrigate Pakistan, which later became the dispute of the canal water. This Award showed that some leading Government Officer played a vital role to damage Pakistan. According to Third June 1947, plan, Muslim majority of eastern Bengal and western Punjab voted in favour of Pakistan. Likewise, the Constituent Assembly of Sindh, Shahi Jirga of Baluchistan and members of Municipal Committee Quetta and people of K. P. K. decided to join Pakistan through the referendum.
The Emergence of Pakistan:
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah came to Karachi on 7 August 1947. He was elected as President of Assembly in the session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on 11 August 1947 and after three days; Lord Mountbatten announced the partition of subcontinent India. Thus, finally, Pakistan emerged on the map of the world on August 14, 1947, as the largest Muslim state in the world. Quaid-e-Azam took over as the first Governor General of Pakistan and with this, the freedom movement of the Muslims of India entered a new phase.
The Third June Plan came as the situational remedy of the political crisis and began to be worked upon with profound activity. Lord Mountbatten tried his best to keep India United but of no avail. Finally, on 3 June 1947, the viceroy announced the partition plan in a joint conference of Congress and Muslim League leaders. Therefore, Pakistan emerged on 14 August 1947 on the map of the world as the largest Muslim state in the world.
Q.4) Discuss the British colonalisationin India, its aims and policies.
The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the mid-20th century when several European powers established colonies in Asia, Africa, and America. The European nations considered these countries a market for the consumption of their products and did not pay any attention towards the development of these countries. As a result, the condition of a common person was worsened.
British Colonization in India:
The Industrialist searched markets for their products outside Europe after the Industrial Revolution in Europe. The British reached India to export their products and to obtain raw materials for Industries. Moreover, the mutual indifference, lack of interest of the rulers and deteriorating condition of peace and comforts provided an opportunity to the British for making a place in India. In 1757, the British defeated Nawab Sirajuddaula in the Battle of Plessy and Marched towards southern India where Haidar Ali and Sultan Tipu strongly resisted for some time but they were also defeated. British reached Delhi in 1803 and the Mughal emperors due to their inefficiency became pensioners of British. In 1857, the people of India waged the war of independence against the British but due to the modern sciences, military equipment and advancement of training, the British became victorious and Indians were defeated. At last, the British rule ended in 1947 as a result of freedom of India and Pakistan.
Aims and Policies:
The British implemented their own policies and aims in India when the Mughal rule ended in the subcontinent. Their aims and policies were:
The arrival of the British in India greatly affected the sciences and Arts, customs and traditions, culture and the way of thinking of the people of this area. British set up effective administrative machinery to rule over India. They made together with them a small but effective group of India and made their Government strong. On the other hand, they divided India into provinces and district and provided an effective administration.
2. Education System:
The British established an educational institution in order to make aware the Indians from the modern sciences. In 1857, universities were established in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay. Besides this with the cooperation of local people many schools, colleges, and other educational institutions were set up. Western sciences and arts were taught in these institutions. The aim was to create such a group to run the Government business in India. Moreover, it was based on class division. The High standard institutions were established for high class and second and third class institutions for middle and lower class people. The religious education (Madrasas) were running separately apart from these institutions, which had no study material of modern sciences.
3. Economic System:
Before British imperialists, India carried on Trade with other countries of the world and so many things were also exported. During this whole period, India never faced any shortage. However, British imperialists brought many changes in the economy in an organized manner, which destroyed the trade of Indians, e.g. heavy taxes were levied that finished the exports of India and became a country of imports to the extent that imports of food items also started. Only raw materials were exported and English Manufactures were imported from India.
4. Racial Discrimination:
One of the distinctive features of the British Imperialism was racial discrimination. During the English rule in the subcontinent, the relation of English peoples and local peoples remained of the ruler and the subject. British had never been a part of Indian society. The social activities of British remained separate. Separate parks, clubs, and hotels were established for them where entry of the Indian was prohibited. This racial discrimination badly affected the psychology of Indians. Therefore, the changes brought into being in education, economy, politics, and way of living by the British compiled negative effects on the people.
British colonialism brought many changes in the internal and external state affairs. The administrative, educational, social, economic and religious policies were in favour of Hindus and against the Muslims. Therefore, Muslims remained backward in every field of life. Thus, Muslims in India started the struggle for their freedom from British rule and it ended when the subcontinent was divided into two great states and Muslims got their independent state on 14 August 1947.