Sindh Class 9 Notes Pak Studies Cha 10 Pakistan A Welfare State

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  1. The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) established welfare state at Madina.
  2. Pakistan wants to become a Welfare state.
  3. The Muslim ruler is called Caliph.
  4. In Islamic concepts of a welfare state, the ruler works like a servant of the People.
  5. Khilafat-e-Rashida remained for nearly 29 Years.
  6. Formation of an Islamic society is the main goal of the government of Pakistan.
  7. Without unity among the people, there is no concept of progress.
  8. Pakistan Economy depends upon agriculture.
  9. Education is the fundamental right which has been accepted by the U.N Charter.
  10. We must pay taxes in time
  11. Mostyly People of Pakistan are associated with Mining.
  12. Sound economy is the base of progress and development.
  13. Role of a Person is very important in a welfare state.
  14. Government is making efforts to establish an Islamic society in Pakistan.
  15. Maority of the population in Pakistan is associated with agriculture.
  16. Pakistan is self-sufficient in the production of Agriculture and Industry.
  17. Sovereignty in Islam belongs to Allah Almighty
  18. Economic development leads to Self-sufficiency.

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What is the concept of an Islamic Welfare State?

The ultimate ideal of a state in Islam is a universal federation associated together for upholding freedom of conscience, for the maintenance of peace, and for cooperation in promoting human welfare throughout the world. Islam presented the concept of the welfare state, fourteen hundred years ago which was fully practised during the period of Righteous caliph’s (Khilafat-e-Rashida 632-661 AD). It is said that the concept of an Islamic welfare state is comprehensive, differing fundamentally from western notions. Islam demands its followers to create a just society, the core purpose of which is to look after the welfare and betterment of the people who constitute that society. The concept of Islamic Welfare State includes:

1)    The concept of Sovereignty:
Sovereignty in Islam only belongs to Almighty Allah. The state protects the life, property, and honour of its individuals.
2)    Basic Tenets of Islam:
It is necessary for the one who runs the affairs of the Islamic Welfare State to adhere to the basic tenets of Islam. He should be a person distinguished due to his outstanding merits of knowledge and God-fearing (Taqwa). The Quran says: “… verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you…”
3)    The Head of the State:
The head of an Islamic Welfare state is the servant of the people. He always thinks about the welfare of his people and lives like an ordinary man. Hazrat Umar RA said that “Such a ruler is extremely lucky or fortunate whose public is happy with him and such a ruler is extremely unfortunate, whose public is degraded.”
4)    Accountability:
The head of an Islamic Welfare State is always accountable to its people. The ruler is not beyond question or criticism. Such a state develops a prosperous society, which provides equal opportunities for progress to all individuals. It provides all basic facilities to the individuals including the non-Muslims.
5)    Moral and Spiritual uplift of Citizens:
The function of an Islamic Welfare State is not merely the maintenance of peace but also has higher objectives to achieve and to work for the moral and spiritual uplift of its citizens. It prepares them for a successful life in their world and deliverance in the Hereafter.
6)    Punishments for Moral Vices:
Islamic Welfare State enforces those punishments which have especially been mentioned in the Holy Quran and which are termed as “Hadd” i.e. the moral vices like lying, breaking of the promise and covenant, backbiting and untrue allegation, and miserliness greed and avarice, taking bribe, robbery, falling short the balance and measurements, drinking, gambling, arrogance, and hypocrisy etc.

Islam is the religion of true guidance for all human beings. The Islamic welfare state is a state, which performs several functions for the welfare of the people and protects their fundamental rights. Islam is a perfect religion to follow and to implement good governance in an Islamic state. The model of good governance offered by Islam is unmatched in all respects of life.

What are the National goals of Pakistan?

Quaid-e-Azam was a great leader and made many efforts for the betterment of the Muslims of India. He led his nation to freedom and was able to achieve an independent homeland for the Muslims of India. On 14 August 1947, the subcontinent was divided under the Independence Act of 1947, into two sovereign states, India and Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam was appointed as the first Governor-General of Pakistan. He was one of those leaders in the world who was well aware of all the structural, functional, institutional, and ideological changes that had to be faced before the national goals could be reached. His vision of Pakistan was an ideal Islamic State with its socio-economic setup based on the teachings of the faith. Therefore, he set forth the goals for the development of Pakistan as a newly born state.

National Goals of Pakistan:
Pakistan is a sovereign Islamic state and its national objectives are:

1)    Setting up an Islamic Society:
The foremost national objective of Pakistan is the setting up of an Islamic Society as per the teachings of Islam and principles of democracy. Quaid-e-Azam had said that the purpose of the creation of Pakistan was not to just obtain a piece of land but the objective was to establish a laboratory where we could practice principles of Islam. Thus, it is the duty of every Pakistani to create an atmosphere in which he could lead his individual as well as collective life according to the principles of Islam.

2)    Struggle against Exploitation:
It is also our national objective to establish an Islamic society, based on the principles of equality, social justice, mutual respect, and cooperation. This is possible when people get equal opportunities for progress and prosperity and do not fall victim to ignorance, poverty, and exploitation.

3)    State Security:
It is the collective responsibility of the people and the government to safeguard the country from internal and external dangers. The protection of national identity and freedom is another important national goal of Pakistan.

4)    Self-sufficiency:
One of the national goals of Pakistan is to be economically self-sufficient. This would require sustained efforts at the national level by depending upon our resources and by promoting education and scientific knowledge.

5)    Unity with Muslim Countries:
Strengthening fraternal ties with the Muslim countries of the world forms an essential part of Pakistan’s national goals. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a great protagonist of the unity of the Muslim world. Therefore, it is the duty of every Pakistani to promote unity among the Islamic countries and unite them on one platform. We must have to strengthen the role of the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) on the issues concerning the interests of Muslim Ummah.

6)    Peace Initiatives:
Promotion of international and regional peace, reformation of the unjust international economic system and elimination of racial discrimination are also our national objectives.

7)    Struggle for Welfare State:
The most important objective is to make Pakistan a Welfare State. The resources of Pakistan are limited, which is the only hurdle in making Pakistan a welfare state. We should develop our resources by improving the literacy rate, promoting scientific and technical education, and increasing industrial products. Moreover, the elimination of social evils and corruption is inevitable for making Pakistan a welfare state.

The farsightedness of Jinnah’s views makes them relevant to the issues faced by Pakistan, even, today. Quaid-e-Azam set many goals for the freedom and betterment of Muslims before and after the establishment of Pakistan. These goals were adopted as the national objectives of Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan very soon got a significant position in the world because these objectives proclaimed that the foundation of Pakistan was based on social justice, peace, Islamic socialism, fraternity, and unity, which emphasized the quality, and unity of man all over the world.

Why is self-sufficiency in food necessary?

Food is the basic need of the people. However, the lack of proper or sufficient food in the country results in poor health of the people and a decrease in the development and construction process of the country. The majority of the population of Pakistan is engaged in agriculture therefore, a major part of national income is obtained from the agricultural products and industries based on agricultural output. There are many reasons due to which Self-sufficiency in food is necessary for a country:

To save valuable foreign exchange, which is spent on the import of foodstuff.
To establish more industries, which will increase products and earn foreign exchange.
To decrease foreign loans.
To increase people’s purchasing power and improve the quality of life.
To flourish in trade and business.
To provide more job opportunities for people and eliminate poverty.

Why is peace in the world necessary?

World Peace is defined as a stress-free state, calmness, and happiness among and within the people and all the nations. World peace is necessary to keep the balance, freedom, and harmony for the comfortable life of communities and societies. Moreover, world peace is necessary for humanity to reach its full potential through international cooperation, integration, unity, protection from violence and the welfare of the people of the world.

What is the role of an individual in a Welfare State?

Role of an Individual in a Welfare State:
The concept of Welfare State is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. Therefore, all citizens of a state have political, social, personal, and economic rights and along with these rights, responsibilities come that citizens are expected to carry out to help their communities and others. Maintaining a balance of rights and responsibilities is essential to constructing and preserving healthy relationships and a welfare state. Thus, when a welfare state is supposed to meet all the basic needs of its citizens, the citizens are also required to fulfil their obligations towards the state. The important duties of an individual are:

1)    Maintenance of Law and Order:
The first duty of the citizens and government of a welfare state is to maintain the law and order and to ensure that the life, property, and religious beliefs of the citizens are fully protected. They should fully respect and follow the law enforced in the country.

2)    Faithfulness:
Every citizen must remain loyal to the state. He should keep himself away from any activity, which comes under the betrayal of the country and gets ready for sacrifice at the time of rest.

3)    Respect to Other Citizens:
It is the duty of an individual in a welfare state to show respect to the rights of fellow citizens and protect their life, honour, and property.

4)    Payment of taxes:
The stare provides the basic needs to the citizens, which are necessary for their life, progress, and happiness. Therefore, the citizens must pay all the taxes, which are levied by the state to run the affairs of the state.

5)    Avoid misusing the Facilities:
Every citizen must avoid the misuse of the facilities provided by the state for the public like electricity, gas, water supply system, parks, means of transport and public property etc.

6)    Elimination of Corruption:
Bribery and corruption are the biggest curses of any society. Therefore, it is the duty of individuals to tackle corruption with an iron hand.

7)    Use of Vote:
Every citizen should cast his vote in favour of those politicians who really deserve it and also to make sure whether the voted person is fulfilling the promises he made during the elections or not.

8)    Public Service:
Every citizen should extend full cooperation to all the other citizens and should take interest in the welfare of the people.

9)    Discouragement of Black Marketing:
Black marketing is a crime against society. A citizen, who does black marketing, commits a great crime. The black marketers ought to be severely punished because they cause wholesale starvation and want and even death. The citizens must point out black marketers around them.

10)    Elimination of Violence:
It is the responsibility of the citizens to eschew violence of thought, word, and action for the attainment of universal unity.

11)    Purposeful Education:
Education is a significant element of achieving progress in society. It does not merely mean academic education but to mobilize the people and build up the character of future generations. Thus, it is the responsibility of every person to receive education, learn skills, and utilize natural resources to accelerate the pace of progress.

12)    Participation in Welfare Activities:
Every individual must take part individually or collectively in the welfare activities and help the poor, handicapped, and needy people in the neighbourhood.

13)    Hard work:
Every citizen should work hard for himself and for the state instead of becoming an undue liability for the state.

The notion of a welfare state has gained importance in the world and democratic governments in the global world have effectively implemented the concept of welfare states, which has helped the societies in improving the scope for the betterment of the citizens. The implementation of rights and duties of citizens in Welfare societies help to avoid violence and spread universal peace and equality among human beings. Therefore, the state has become an agency of administering social services and a helper of social welfare activities. 

What is meant by a Welfare State?

The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state is responsible for the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equal opportunity, equal distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for a good life. Therefore, the Welfare State is defined as “a state that cares for the basic needs of its citizens and enables them to live a peaceful life.”

Describe the duties of a Welfare State.

The Welfare state is a concept of government in which the state is responsible for the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. The concept of the welfare state is based on the principles of equal opportunity, equal distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for a good life. Therefore, the Welfare State is defined as “a state that cares for the basic needs of its citizens and enables them to live a peaceful life.”
The Duties of a Welfare State:
The concept of the modern Welfare State emerged in Europe as a reaction against the unequal distribution of wealth. This concept gained popularity in the 20th century and many European states introduced reforms for the welfare of their citizens. In the olden times, the duties of the state were only limited to the security, maintenance of law and order and general administration of the country. However, the duties of a modern welfare state include the welfare and the economic and social well-being of its citizens. The basic duties of a welfare society are:
1.     Provision of the basic necessities of life:
It is the duty of the welfare state that it should provide the necessities of life to its citizens. The welfare government is keen in providing economic and social services such as general education, public health, public transport, housing, and other financial assistance to its people.
2.    Maintenance of law and order:
There must be maintained law and order in a welfare state. Every government should aim at securing peace and order within the country. There would be no progress of any kind unless there is peace and order in the country. Therefore, it is the duty of the government to make adequate arrangements for the maintenance of law and order.
3.    Social justice:
It is the responsibility of welfare society to ensure justice for all. In a welfare state, the common person has to deal with the authorities for many of their needs. For example, administrative officers, controlling officers, sanction authorities, officers of social services, executives of public sector undertakings etc. believe in the quick provision of justice and fulfilment of their requirements.
4.    Utilization of Natural Resources:
The State should develop its natural resources fully in order to promote the economic growth of the people. It should exploit those resources to increase national income. The Welfare State should protect forests, save the environment, promote fisheries and should protect wildlife. It should utilize mineral wealth and should make maximum use of the sea, rivers, mountains, and other resources. The States should help in the economic improvement of the people.
5.    Education:
Education is an important element in the social progress of a state. The Intellectual Development of citizens is made through education. These include provision for schools, colleges, universities, etc. Thus, free educational opportunities must be provided to the citizens of the modern States.
6.    Steps for a better economy:
Economic activities include production and distribution. The welfare state has to formulate national policies and plan every economic activity in a balanced manner. Industrial policy, trade policy, commercial and banking policy etc. are framed to control those activities.
7.    The instrument for Social Welfare:
The welfare state is dedicated to the welfare of people. It seeks to provide minimum facilities to all people, to remove poverty, hunger, and unemployment, and to bridge the gap between the rich and poor. It aims at establishing social and economic justice.
8.    Equal Rights of All:
It gives equal rights to all irrespective of caste, race, and religion. It does not discriminate against anybody. A welfare state believes in the equality of all human beings.
The modern democratic governments effectively implement the concept of welfare states, which improves the scope for the betterment of the citizens. Many Welfare societies help to avoid violence and spread universal peace and equality among human beings. Therefore, modern states have taken several measures in order to achieve their goals of National welfare and have adopted the principles and schemes of mutual and social insurance. Thus, the state has become an agency of administering social services and a helper of social welfare activities.

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What steps have been taken by the Government for universal education?

Education is recognized as a basic right of the individuals in Islam as well as in the UN Charter. According to Islamic philosophy, knowledge does not simply mean a set of information; it also implies a deep insight, which enables a person to look at things objectively and helps him make sound decisions and it calls for a perpetual effort at character building and purification of a soul. Thus, the Intellectual development of citizens is made through education.

Laski said:

“The education of the citizens is the heart of the modern state.”

Therefore, signifying the need for population education and emphasizing its relationship with population development, aims, and objectives of education in Pakistan are determined by the fact that we are a predominantly Muslim society. An Islamic state must provide free and compulsory education for all citizens without any gender discrimination. The education scheme should include not only basic literacy but also higher Islamic learning. In this regard, the government has taken the following steps to spread education in the country, e.g.

  1. Reforms in education known as Education Sector Reforms (ESR) have been introduced. The purpose of these reforms is to introduce a system, whicfulfilsr the need and obligation of the independent ideological state of Pakistan. The new system will ensure access to every citizen to receive partnerships
  2. The study of Islamiat and Pakistan Studies is compulsory to make the children enlightened and better individuals by understanding the real spirit of Islam and the importance of Pakistan.
  3. Many steps are being taken to discourage the tendency of business in education. In addition, the government has also announced a plan to provide free education up to class x in a phased manner.
  4. The service structure and service conditions of the teachers are being made better through Teacher-Training Programs, which will enable them to work with interest and devotion.
  5. Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal has started a programme of the award of scholarships to the meritorious and poor students.
  6. Awareness campaigns have been started on Radio and Television to create interest among the people to educate their children, especially in the girls.
  7. The government has started a programme “Education for All” (EFA) throughout Pakistan. Under this scheme, Non-formal basic education at institutions has been opened in the rural areas, which provide Books and educational material. The number of these institutions at present is around ten thousand (10,000), which will gradually rise to about eighty thousand (80,000).
  8. The government has started a scheme of public-private partnership. Under the scheme, Non-government Organizations (NGOs) and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) will establish institutions in rural areas to help the government in the promotion of education and literacy.
  9. Education Foundations have been set up in all the provinces and at the Federal level to provide financial help to the private educational institutions.


The world is facing rapid changes, which includes increasing globalization, complex economic, societal, and cultural relations. Information, education, and knowledge are progressively becoming the driving forces behind the new social and economic structures. Therefore, Education is becoming the most important basic need of Developing countries because economic development is not possible without a good education. In this respect, the government has taken many educational reforms to provide good quality education to all the citizens of Pakistan because a balanced education system promotes not only economic development, but also productivity, and generates individual income per capita.

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