Implementation of Martial Law in Pakistan
On October 7, 1958, the first nationwide martial law was enacted in Pakistan. This martial law was enacted by President Iskander Mirza and the Commander-in-Chief of the Badri Army, General Muhammad Ayub Khan, was appointed the country’s first Chief Martial Law Administrator and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces.
By October 1958, the political situation in the country had reached its worst. Dissolution of ministries at the centre had become the norm. Dr Khan, a former Chief Minister of West Pakistan, and Shahid Ali, the Deputy Speaker of the Assembly in East Pakistan, were assassinated by members of the Assembly.
According to Ayub Khan, “the long-awaited moment had finally arrived and it was no longer possible to escape responsibility.”
On October 7, 1958, President Iskander Mirza announced the dissolution of the Central and Provincial Governments and the National and Provincial Assemblies, the repeal of the Constitution and the imposition of martial law in the country and the appointment of Ayub Khan as its Chief Administrator. She stayed with him.
But Ayub Khan wanted more power, so on October 24, 1958, he was made the Prime Minister of the country. Ayub Khan took the oath of office on the same day and announced the names of the members of the new cabinet. Apart from General Ayub Khan, the cabinet also includes three military officers, Lt. Gen. Azam Khan, Lt. Gen. Wajid Ali Burki and Lt.
Gen. KM Sheikh, and eight civilian ministers, Manzoor Qadir, FM Khan, Habib-ur-Rehman, Abul Qasim, Hafeez-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Shoaib and Maulvi. Muhammad Ibrahim and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
But the gulf between Ayub Khan and Iskander Mirza widened. Three days later, on the morning of October 27, 1958, Ayub Khan’s cabinet took the oath of office. At ten o’clock that night, at the behest of Ayub Khan, three army generals, Wajid Ali Burki, Azam Khan and KM Sheikh, fired at Alexander Mirza. Sign his resignation. All sources of power in the country had come under the control of General Ayub Khan.
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Birth of Haider Bakhsh Jatoi
* Haider Bakhsh Jatoi, the famous Hari leader and poet of Sindh, was born on October 7, 1900 in Larkana district. He graduated from Bombay University in 1922 and did Honors in 1923. He later joined the government service and rose to the position of Deputy Collector. In 1943, Haider Bakhsh Jatoi resigned from the government service and joined the peasants ‘movement. In 1946, he was elected president of the Sindh Farmers’ Committee. In 1950, the Farmers’ Council approved his draft constitution and in the same year, as a result of his struggle, the Sindh government passed the Agriculture Act. Haider Bakhsh Jatoi spent seven years in jail in his struggle to restore the rights of Sindh farmers. ۔
Haider Bakhsh Jatoi was a great poet. His poem on the struggle for independence of the Indian subcontinent, which was published under the name of Azadi Qaum, is considered his masterpiece. His other books include Darya H Shah, The Gift of Sindh, Hari Geet, Hari Inqilab and Sindh Piari.
In 1969, he suffered a stroke that left him bedridden. He died on May 21, 1970.
Haider Bakhsh Jatoi was given the title of “Father of Sindh” by the people of Sindh and he was entitled to this title in every way. In 2000, 30 years after his death, the Government of Pakistan awarded him the Hilal-e-Imtiaz Medal.
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Chief of the Pakistan Army. General Pervez Musharraf
(October 7, 1998, to November 28, 2007)
After the resignation of General Jehangir Karamat, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif used his powers to appoint Mangla Corps Commander Pervez Musharraf as two generals over Lieutenant General Ali Qali Khan and Khalid Nawaz Khan. He announced the appointment of the Chief of the Armed Forces of Pakistan.
General Pervez Musharraf was born on August 11, 1943, in Delhi. And he fought in both the 1965 and 1971 wars.
When General Pervez Musharraf became the head of Pakistan’s evil army, he was an anonymous corps commander, but he soon made headlines. When Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee visited Lahore in 1999, General Pervez Musharraf refused to greet him. In May 1999, under his leadership, the Pakistan Army launched a campaign on the peaks of Kargil and cut off the supply of recruits stationed on the Siachen Glacier. The US openly sided with India and under its pressure, Pakistan had to evacuate the peaks of Kargil. From here, the seeds of mistrust between Nawaz Sharif and Pervez Musharraf began to grow.
General Pervez Musharraf planned to overthrow Nawaz Sharif’s government, but before that Nawaz Sharif fired the general and appointed General Zia-ud-Din as the new army chief. At that time, General Pervez Musharraf was returning home from a foreign tour. His deputies took immediate action to ensure that Pervez Musharraf’s plane landed in Pakistan and at the same time overthrew Nawaz Sharif’s government.
From Governor General Jinnah to Iskander Mirza
The partition of the subcontinent initially gave rise to two countries. The region, which was divided on the same day, spent more or less 200 years under British rule, but after independence, there was a difference in the basic pillars of the political structure of the two countries.
The Pakistan Muslim League-led movement was based on religion and the Congress-led independence movement was based on nationalism.
Pakistan had to structure its political system under the India Act of 1935, under which Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League, was sworn in as Governor-General by Lord Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of India.
The office of Governor-General of India first came into being in 1773 at Fort William, where Warren Hastings was made the first Governor-General appointed by the Board of Directors of the East India Company.
After the victory of the British in the First War of Independence, the rule of the East India Company was abolished and then in 1858, the direct rule of the British Crown was established.
The Governor-General was called the representative of the British Government in India. The same Governor-General also held the position of Viceroy.
After the partition of India, the post of Viceroy was abolished, but the United Kingdom symbolically retained the post of Governor-General.
The post of Governor-General was the most powerful post under the Indian Act of 1935, and after taking the oath of office, the Prime Minister-elect of Pakistan also became subordinate to the Governor-General.
According to the 9th Schedule Indian Act 1935, the Governor-General had the power to move any legal bill. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah as the Governor-General wanted to use the executive powers in this country to move Pakistan on the path of rapid development.
The Quaid-e-Azam should have taken the oath of office of the Prime Minister of Pakistan or the post of Governor-General. Critics have different views on this. However, after the post of Governor-General became vacant, Khawaja Nazimuddin, belonging to the Nawab family of Dhaka, took over the post of Governor-General.
It should be noted that Khawaja Nazimuddin was the Prime Minister of Bengal during the British occupation of India. When Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated in October 1951, Khawaja Nazimuddin resigned as Governor-General and took over the post of Prime Minister.
The post of Governor-General was withdrawn from Khawaja Nazimuddin and he was given the post of Prime Minister otherwise he would not have left this most powerful post.
As soon as Khawaja Nazimuddin resigned as Governor-General to take over the PM’s post, the Cabinet of the Constituent Assembly nominated Finance Minister Malik Ghulam Muhammad as the country’s third Governor-General.
Ghulam Muhammad was neither involved in Muslim League politics nor was he a political activist. He was a bureaucrat who was included in the first cabinet as finance minister with the consent of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Probably the reason was that he had good relations with the Nawab of Bahawalpur and Nizam of Hyderabad and these two personalities had close ties with Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Ghulam Muhammad, the country’s third governor-general and bureaucrat, had a bad relationship with Prime Minister Khawaja Nazimuddin, who used his personal powers to send the prime minister home in 1953 and dissolve the Constituent Assembly.
The Governor General’s move was challenged by the President of the Constituent Assembly Maulvi Tamizuddin in the Sindh High Court and the court ruled in his favour, but the Supreme Court of Pakistan rejected the decision of the Sindh High Court. Provided legal protection to the move.
The first major political blow to Pakistan was dealt with by bureaucrat Ghulam Muhammad, who had now been given constitutional legitimacy by the Supreme Court. Not only that, but the Governor-General nominated Muhammad Ali Bogra, Pakistan’s ambassador to the United States, belonging to the Nawab family, for the post of Prime Minister.
It should be noted that this is the same Muhammad Ali Bogra who was against giving Urdu the status of national language on which he was separated from politics by the first Governor-General Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and sent to Burma on a diplomatic mission. Ali Bogra became the third Prime Minister of Pakistan.
Whether it was the fate of Pakistan or the growing power of the Establishment in the early years leaves the decision to the critics. But the appointment of governors-general and the first three prime ministers violated democratic principles, but the whole nation suffered the consequences of undemocratic decisions.
When Muhammad Ali Bogra took over as Prime Minister at the behest of Governor-General Ghulam Muhammad, he wanted to make himself a strong Prime Minister, so he and his colleagues planned to limit the Governor-General’s legal powers. And decided to amend the Indian Independence Act, 1947.
A resolution was tabled in the Constituent Assembly seeking repeal of Articles 9, 10, 10B, 10A and 17 of the Act, which was immediately passed by the Assembly. Following the passage of this resolution, the Governor-General no longer had the legal authority to dismiss the Prime Minister-elect.
Meanwhile, Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra left for the United States with Ayub Khan, Sir Zafarullah Khan, Iskander Mirza and Chaudhry Muhammad Ali.
After the approval of the resolution, differences arose between the Governor-General and Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra. He left the visit incomplete and returned to Pakistan. The Governor-General dissolved the Constituent Assembly in 1954 using executive powers.
Meanwhile, Ghulam Muhammad also fell ill, so he took a two-month leave and went to Britain, and the post of Governor-General was handed over to Major General (retd) Iskander Mirza.
As soon as he became Governor-General, he removed Muhammad Ali Bogra from the post of Prime Minister. Deposed Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra, who had resorted to legal means to limit the powers of the Governor-General, lost his seat.
Addressing the nation on Radio Pakistan, Governor-General Iskander Mirza said that the Prime Minister has been dismissed in view of political instability in the country.
It may be recalled that Iskander Mirza was appointed Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Commonwealth Affairs and Kashmir Affairs in the government of the deposed Prime Minister Bogra. He also served as the Governor of East Pakistan.
The Prime Minister of Pakistan was once again attacked under the guise of the post of Governor General and the deposed Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Bogra was sent back as Ambassador to the United States.
Now Governor General Iskander Mirza made bureaucrat Chaudhry Muhammad Ali the Prime Minister of Pakistan on August 12, 1955. This is the second time that a civil servant has become the Prime Minister of Pakistan.
These were very unusual events that were born from the womb of the Governor General. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali was also instrumental in drafting Pakistan’s first constitution, but as political differences with the Muslim League escalated, pressure mounted on Muhammad Ali, another new party from the Muslim League, the Republican Party. Came into existence
Meanwhile, differences between the Governor General and the Prime Minister began to grow, which eventually culminated in the resignation of Chaudhry Muhammad Ali. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali also left the PM’s post and resigned from the party membership of the Muslim League.
Nine years later, the first constitution of Pakistan was drafted and after the approval of this constitution, the post of Governor General was abolished, after which Iskander Mirza resigned from the post of Governor General and took the oath of office. The post of Governor General was replaced by the post of President and Awami League leader Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy became the Prime Minister in 1956.
Did Hussain agree that both Governor General Iskander Mirza and Prime Minister Suhrawardy were from Bengal?
Suhrawardy also faced a number of political challenges, especially as the Muslim League, the Republican Party and the Awami League had different views on the One Unit scheme in the country, and Prime Minister Suhrawardy’s difficulties began to increase. ۔
When Suhrawardy tried to get a vote of confidence from the parliament, Iskander Mirza created problems for the prime minister. Eventually, Suhrawardy submitted his resignation to Iskander Mirza. Earlier, the Governor General kept forcing the Prime Minister to resign, but now the President has taken over this responsibility.
Former Governor General and current President of Pakistan Sahibzada Iskander Ali Mirza appointed Ibrahim Ismail Chandragar (II Chandragar) as the caretaker Prime Minister.
It may be recalled that II Chandragar had also been the provincial president of the Muslim League in Bombay in 1937 and had also held the post of Minister of Commerce and Commerce in the first cabinet of Pakistan.
II Chandragar was given the post by President Iskander Mirza at his request, so the President did not allow this Prime Minister to stay for more than two months and on December 16, 1957, he resigned from II Chandragar and sent home.
Later, Iskander Mirza imposed the first martial law on the country and derailed Pakistan’s political journey and democracy.
This same democracy is still fighting for its survival 70 years later. The worst thing that the post of Governor General has done to Pakistan’s politics in the political history of Pakistan will live on in history forever.
Then, when the post of Governor-General was changed to the post of President through the Constitution, the post of President continued to assist in the implementation of dictatorship in the country due to its immense power.
Quaid-e-Azam wanted this post to provide Pakistan with a strong democratic structure that would make Pakistan a welfare state.
Ironically, after the death of the Quaid-e-Azam, the post became a seat of power around which the musical chair game began.
Whatever the strength of democracy, the hands of the dictatorship became so strong that they had to wait until the 21st century and the 18th amendment to weaken them.