Lahore Board Class 10 English Notes Chapter 4

Matric (Science with Biology) Lahore Board Class 10 English Notes Chapter 4 First Aid | Grade 10, according to Lahore Board syllabus Long and Short question, grammar, Mcqs, and Writing Skills.

Class 10 English Notes Chapter 4

i) You should not keep checking if the bleeding has stopped? Why?


We should not keep checking if the bleeding has stopped, because it will disturb the clotting of blood and cause the bleeding not to stop.


ii) Why is it necessary to keep away soap from the wound?


It is necessary to keep the soap away from the wound, because it can cause irritation to the wound, creating more trouble.

iii) How is an antibiotic cream or ointment good in healing the wound?



The antibiotic cream keeps the surface moist and makes the natural process of healing, faster.

iv) What should you do if you are allergic to adhesive material used in most bandages?


If you are allergic to the adhesive material used in most bandages, switch to the adhesive-free dressing or sterile gauze held in place with paper tape, gauze roll or a loosely applied elastic bandage.


v) When do you need to see a doctor?


Seeing a doctor becomes very important when you observe a sign of infection, redness of wound, irritation or if the wound does not heal faster.

vi) What should your first aid kit consist of?


  • Our first aid kit should consist of:
  • The first aid book
  • Sticky plasters
  • Plastic bandages
  • Gauze and adhesive tape
  • Antiseptic (germ-free wipes)
  • Safety-pins and tweezers.
  • Scissors
  • Latex gloves
  • Calamine lotion
  • The clinical thermometer
  • Tablets like, aspirin or paracetamol

Q.3) Read the First Aid Process of cuts and scrapes. Put the relevant information in the graphic organizer showing sequence.

Handling of minor injuries at home, need careful assistance. To care cuts and scrapes follow the guideline

  1. Stop the bleeding: minor injuries stop bleeding on their own, by applying pressure for 20-30 seconds. Do not disturb blood clotting by checking it continuously. Seek doctor’s advice in case blood spurts
  2. Clean the wound: rinse the wound with clean water, avoid soup because it causes irritation. Use tweezers for cleaning.
  3. Apply antibiotics: apply antibiotics to keep the surface moist and expedite the healing process.
  4. Cover the wound: it will keep the wound safe from harmful germs. Once the wound is healed enough to make an infection, remove the bandage and expose the wound to air.
  5. Change the dressing and watch the wounds: change the dressing once, daily. Make sure if the person is allergic to adhesive use sterile gauze.  See a doctor if the wound does not show signs of healing.

Q.1) Write a paragraph on “How to take care of cuts and scrapes”. Use transitional devices e.g. first, next, then, after that, in the end etc. to join sentences within the paragraph.

Any injury can cause pain by cutting or scraping. It can be safely treated through cleaning and clearing the bruises at home to reduce the infections and speed up healing. Following is the guideline for how to take care of cut and scrape.

Firstly, try to stop bleeding by putting pressure on the area with a tissue, gauze pad, or clean cloth. The bleeding should stop after a few minutes. If the blood soaks through the gauze or cloth, add more gauze or another cloth and apply more pressure. Don’t remove the gauze or cloth to check to see if it is still bleeding until you have kept the pressure for several minutes.


Next, after you stop bleeding, rinse the cut thoroughly with cool water. You can either hold the wound under running water or pour water from a cup over the wound. After that, apply a thin layer of antibiotic cream to the wound. If the rash appears, stop using the cream. Do not forget to cover the wound to keep scratch safe from bacteria and germs. And change the dressing on daily basis. Lastly and importantly, always keep a check on the signs of infection i.e. wound redness, raising pain, liquid flow etc. In such cases, seek doctor’s assistance.

Q.2) Did you ever get cuts and scrapes? How did you give yourself first aid? Write a paragraph in past tense. First make an outline with the help of mind map given below.

Learning to ride a bicycle for the first time is fun yet, frightening. It was a cloudy beautiful morning in summer. I took my bicycle, newly gifted by my father on my eighth birthday without any assistance. The road of my street is wide and clear. I mounted my bike and started paddling.

 I stumbled first but then balanced myself and gave my bike some speed which increased gradually. It was quite fun. Suddenly, I heard horn of a car from behind. As I turned my head to the back, I don’t know what happened and when I gained my conscious back, I was in a hole and bike on my side. The hole was not very deep. I couldn’t make sense of the accident from where the hole comes from, in the middle of the road. I stood up, dusted off my clothes and started looking for the bruises I got. At that moment I was feeling pain but not much, since I was scared to death because of the car horn.

 I held back my tears, took my bicycle and started running towards my house, stumbling and jittering. I didn’t tell my mother just to avoid her anger, went to my room silently and inspected my bruises. Now I was really feeling pain in my toes and knees. Along with that, I also had scratched my lips which were bleeding.  I rinsed my wounds with cold water and covered the bruises with tissue paper. I took some ointment cream, poleax from my mother’s drawer and spread it over the scratched and cuts. As I felt a little satisfied, I went to the mirror to scrutinize myself. To my horror, I lost my tooth. That gave me a twinge of pain.  I started crying louder this time. My mother came to my room and shocked by surprise. After that I faced the music for going outside alone. Riding a bicycle for beginners need high level of precautions. Helmet, knee pads and shoes are mandatory to wear to avoid these loses.

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