John Dalton was an English scientist. In the early nineteenth century, he introduced the nuclear hypothesis to the world of science. In this way, he provided the basic key that paved the way for endless progress in chemistry.
But he was not, in fact, the first man to make the assumption that all material bodies could be formed by combining very short and inanimate objects called “atoms.”
The Greek philosopher Epicurus also adopted this view, and later the Roman writer Leucartis (d. 55 BC) presented it in a magnificent way at a glance at the nature of his famous poems.
The theory of Democritus (which Aristotle rejected) was ignored in the Middle Ages. Its effects on modern science are minimal.
Many seventeenth-century scientists (including Isaac Newton) supported the idea.
However, these ancient theories of the atom were never presented in a concrete way, nor were they considered necessary for scientific research. More importantly, no one understood the connection between philosophical assumptions about the atom and the solid facts of chemistry. This is the place where Dalton came to the fore. He presented a clear and solid theory that could be used in the description of chemical experiments and tested in the laboratory.
Although his terminology was slightly different from our current terminology, Dalton elaborated on the concepts of atom molecules, elements and chemical compounds. He also made it clear that although the total number of atoms in the world is very large, their The number of species is small. (He has written a list of twenty elements in his original book while today we are aware of more than twenty elements).
Although the different types of atoms are different in terms of weight, Dalton insisted that the properties and weights of the same type of atoms are the same. (In-depth modern experiments have shown that there are exceptions to this law. There are atoms called isotopes. They have slight differences in weight (although their chemical properties are similar).
In his book, Dalton also gives a list of the weights of different types of atoms. It was the first of its kind. It is a key feature of any quantum atomic theory.
Dalton also explained that any two molecular atoms of the same chemical compound are formed by similar sharing (for example, the molecule of nitrous oxide contains two atoms of nitrogen and one atom of oxygen).
This proves that in a particular chemical compound, regardless of how it is formed or where it is present, the elements are always present in proportion to one by one by weight. Dalton put forward his theory in such a concrete way that it was accepted by the majority of scientists over the next twenty years.
The chemists imitated the scheme presented in this book, which accurately determines the relevant atomic weights, analyzes chemical compounds by weight, and evaluates the correct distribution of atoms to form molecules of the atomic type.
It is difficult to determine the significance of the nuclear hypothesis. It is a basic reference in our understanding of chemistry.
In addition, it has the status of a case of modern physics. Only because even before Dalton the nuclear hypothesis had been worked out, the work of Swas did not find a place in the first part of this list.
Dalton was born in 1766 in Eaglesfield, a village in northern England. He completed his primary education at the age of eleven and paid for his scientific education.
Prematurely he became a mature man. At the age of twelve he took up the teaching profession. For the rest of his life, he remained in the profession. At the age of fifteen he moved to the town of Kundal. When he was twenty-six years old, he moved to Manchester, where he remained until the year 1844, the year of his death.
In 1787, Dalton became interested in meteorology.
When he was only 21 years old. Six years later, he wrote a book on the subject. The study of wind and the atmosphere aroused his interest in the properties of gases as a whole. According to this, the volume of gas depends on its temperature.
(It is commonly called the Charles Law after a French scientist named Charles. He discovered the law many years before Dalton but could not hide his findings.) Is.
By 1804, Dalton had developed his own nuclear theory and compiled a list of atomic weights.
However, his important book, A New System of Chemical Philosophy, came to light in 1808. This book brought him to the limelight. In later years, he received several awards.
Dalton accidentally became “color blind.” This situation sparked new interests in him. He studied the subject and wrote a scientific dissertation on “color blindness” which is considered to be the first dissertation on the subject.