The life of Syedna Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) is full of great deeds. Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) was the forerunner of the great personalities who were instrumental in enlightening the land of Arabia, which became the cradle of misguidance and misguidance after the Prophet (peace be upon him).
On the one hand, the claimants of prophethood were rioting, on the other hand, the group of opponents of Zakat was busy trying to distort the teachings of the Prophet. But the successor of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) due to his enlightened conscience and extraordinary perseverance not only protected it from blossoming but also enlightened all the Arabs with the same torch of guidance. Therefore, the fact is that after the Holy Prophet, the one who revived Islam and the one who has the most benevolence in the world of Islam is this noble caste.
There is no doubt that during the reign of Caliph II great deeds were accomplished, campaigns were decided, even the offices of Rome and Iran were overthrown, but who put the stain on it? When was the Al-Azman spirit born in the country? Who laid the foundation stone of the divine caliphate and who saved the candle of Islam from burning? Of course, only Siddiq Akbar can be named in answer to all these questions and in fact he deserves it.
The foundation of the Khilafah or democratic government in Islam was first laid by Syedna Abu Bakr Siddiq, so he himself was elected by the people and practically as much as he could accomplish great deeds, all the great Companions as opinion and advice. Participants, that is why they did not allow the experienced companions to leave the capital.
In Osama’s campaign, Umar was nominated by the Holy Prophet himself, but he persuaded Usama to leave Madinah to assist him in his consultation. Go. (Tabqat Ibn Saad, Part Maghazi)
When the idea of mobilization came to Syria, he first presented it to the Companions for advice. They were reluctant to give up such an important and dangerous task, but Syedna Ali (RA) agreed. (Yaqubi Vol. 1) , P. 3) and then it was agreed. Similarly, the opinion of the Ahl al-Ra’i Sahabah was sought in jihad against the deniers of Zakat, disobedience of Umar and all other important matters.
This historical fact mentioned in Ibn Sa’d is as follows:
When an issue arose, Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) used to consult the Ahl al-Ra’i and the jurists of the Companions, and some of the prominent people among the Muhajireen and Ansar, namely Umar, Uthman, Ali, Abdul Rahman bin Awf, Mu’adh bin Jabal, Ubi bin Ka’b He used to call Zayd ibn Thabit (may Allah be pleased with him). He used to give fatwas in the time of Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him).
After the nature of government, the most important thing is to establish the governance of the country on the best principle, the distribution of posts and the right choice of officials. Abu Bakr had divided the empire into several provinces and districts, so Madinah, Makkah, Taif, Sana’a, Najran, Hadramaut, Bahrain and Dumat-ul-Jandal were separate provinces. (History of Tabari, p. 5)
In each province, an agent was appointed who performed all kinds of duties. However, in the special capital, almost all the departments were appointed separately, for example, before the command of Abu Ubaidah, he was a wealthy officer. Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, Qazi, Syedna Uthman and Zayd ibn Thabit were the scribes of the Khilafah court.
In the selection of agents and officials, Abu Bakr always preferred those who had been agents or officials during the Prophet’s time, and asked them to work in the same places where they had worked before, such as the Prophet’s time. I was in charge of Atab ibn Asid in Mecca, ‘Uthman ibn Abi al-‘As in Taif, Muhajir ibn Umayyah in Sana’a, Ziyad ibn Labid on death and Alaa ibn al-Hadhrami in Bahrain. Therefore, the first caliph also retained the same people in these places. (History of Tabari 2)
When he used to appoint someone to a position of responsibility or position, he would usually call him and explain his duties and would advise him on safety and piety in very effective words. So he sent ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas and Waleed ibn’ Aqaba to the tribe of Qada’ah to receive alms, and advised them in these words:
Keep the fear of Allah in solitude. He who fears Allah creates for him a means and a means of sustenance which no one can even imagine. He who fears Allah forgives his sins. And his reward is twofold. Verily, the benevolence of the servants of Allah is the best piety. You are on a path of Allah in which there is no room for excess and neglect of such things as the stability of religion and the protection of the Khilafah. So don’t give way to cheap neglect. (Musnad Ahmad, Volume 1, Page 3)
Penalties and limits:
Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) used to be very sympathetic to the criminals personally, so in the time of Prophethood, a man from the tribe of Aslam confessed his immorality to them. Is? He said no. He said, “Repent to Allah, and keep this secret. Allah will also conceal it, for He accepts the repentance of His servants, but He is not free from this person. Happily stoned. (Abu Dawud, Kitab al-Hudood)
But from a political point of view, the first duty of the caliph of the time was to provide moral supervision to the nation and to protect the lives and property of its subjects, and as such, although he did not establish a permanent department of police and accountability. However, the volunteer increased to such an extent that Abdullah ibn Mas’ud was assigned to guard the service to determine the punishment for certain crimes, such as the limit of alcohol was different in the Prophet’s time, but in his time Imposes 40 lashes for drunkard, (Musnad Ahmad)
In the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) there was no regular department of the treasury, but the money that came from different sources was distributed at the same time, so the same arrangement was maintained in his time. He gave ten dirhams to the lower and the upper without any distinction. (Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d vol. 1, p. 2)
He also built a treasury during the last tenure of the government, but it never had the opportunity to accumulate large sums of money, so there was no provision for its protection.
Like the Prophet’s time, there was no regular department of the army in your caliphate. However, when an army went on an expedition, it was divided into different divisions and appointed as separate officers. The same method was followed, that nationally all the tribal officers and their flags were separate, the new post of Amir al-Amra, Commander-in-Chief is also the invention of the first Caliph and Khalid bin Waleed on this post (Fateh al-Baldan, p. 2)
The advantage of alignment was that it helped the Mujahideen of Islam more than the regular Roman army, so Khalid ibn Waleed invented the method of interpreting and determining the place and function of each contingent on the battlefield. done. In the same way, in the state of war, which used to spread chaos in the army due to lack of any order and system, it was stopped. (History of Tabari)
In addition to the establishment of military barracks, for the moral training of the soldiers in the ranks of the sophisticated soldiers, if anyone saw the weakness of the caliphate to correct it, many speeches in the address to the army are in the golden pages of history. Before the assassination, he said to the commander:
You will find people who have devoted themselves to the worship of Allah. Leave them alone. I give you ten wills: do not kill any woman, child or old man, do not cut down fruit trees, Do not desolate, do not burn the oasis, do not embezzle booty, and do not be a coward. (History of the Caliphs, p. 5)
Barriers to innovation:
The real reason for the distortion of all religions is the innovations which gradually change the original form of the cross in such a way that it becomes difficult to distinguish between the true teachings of the founders of the religion and the innovations of the followers, said Abu Bakr. Innovations were very rare in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). However, whenever an innovation appeared, he deleted it. Once on the occasion of Hajj, he found out about a woman from the tribe of Ahams who did not speak. When he heard that he intended to perform a silent Hajj, he said: This is the way of ignorance. It is not permissible in Islam. You should refrain from it and talk. This woman said, “Who are you?” Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) said:
Compilation of the Qur’an:
Many guards were martyred in the face of the claimants of Prophethood and apostates of Islam, especially in the bloody battle of Yamama, so many Companions were martyred that Omar Farooq feared that if the chain of martyrdom of the Companions continued. Most of the Quran will be lost. Therefore, he recommended the first caliph to compile the Qur’an. Syedna Abu Bakr (RA) said that this work is good and with his repeated insistence to Syedna Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) who was the scribe of revelation in the era of Prophethood. Ordered the collection of the Holy Quran. At first he also had an excuse in this work but then his expediency was understood and with great effort and care he collected all the miscellaneous components and compiled it in the form of a book. (Bukhari, Volume 2, Page 3)
Allama Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Allah Almighty has stated in the Holy Qur’an that the Qur’an is a collection of scriptures. The Qur’an was certainly written in the scriptures, but it was miscellaneous. Syedna Abu Bakr Siddiq gathered in one place. Then he was safe after them. Even ‘Uthman copied several copies and sent them to other cities. (Fath al-Bari, p. 2)
It is clear from this interpretation that by your order, Syedna Zaid had compiled the various parts of the Qur’an and compiled it into a book.
Abu Bakr used to pay close attention to the authenticity of the hadith, so once the issue of grandmother’s inheritance came under consideration, since there is no explanation about it in the Qur’an, the practice of the Sunnah of the Prophet (sws) had to be explored. Syedna Mughira bin Shu’bah was present. He said, “I know that the Holy Prophet used to give one-sixth to his grandmother.” He asked cautiously, “Can anyone testify?” Muhammad ibn Musalma (may Allah be pleased with him) stood up and confirmed it, then he enforced the ruling at the same time.
Publication of Islam:
The most important duty of the Naib Rasool (RA) is to preach and spread the religion. Syedna Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) from the very beginning in this good deed which was extraordinary. When the time came for the Khilafah, this obsession as a duty developed further. All over Arabia, Islam was revived, and armies were sent against the Romans and the Iranians. He instructed them to first invite the booty to Islam, and also to spread the message among the Arab tribes living around them, because they could be more easily drawn to it because of national unity, so Muthanna bin Through the efforts of Haritha, all the pagans and Christians of Bani Wa’il became Muslims through Jamila. Similarly, at the invitation of Khalid bin Waleed, most of the tribes of Iraq, Arabia and Syria responded to the invitation. People entered the realm of Islam.
The fulfillment of the covenant by the Messenger of God:
Paying off the debts of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and fulfilling his promises was also part of his duties in the Khilafah. He resigned from this duty at the earliest opportunity and as soon as his booty arrived after the conquest of Bahrain, he announced that If something happens to someone or you have made a promise to someone, come to me. On this announcement, Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) stated that he had promised to fill them with his hands three times. Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) bestowed it on him three times with both hands in the same way. (Bukhari) Similarly, may Abu Bashir Mazani (may Allah be pleased with him) be blessed with fourteen hundred dirhams for his statement.
The opinion of the family of the Holy Prophet (saw):
The dispute over the Garden of Fadak and the issue of Khums may have caused some misunderstanding among the relatives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), especially Fatima, but the first caliph always treated her with kindness and love. And at the time of his death, he was pardoned from Paradise and his mirror purified his heart. (Tabqat Ibn Sa’d)
For those for whom the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made a will, or for whom he had a special favor, the first caliph always took care of their honor and respect and the will of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He took care of Razi Allah Anha, so the first caliph also continued this series.
Rights of Dhimmi subjects:
In the era of Prophethood, the followers of non-religions who were given refuge in Islamic countries and their rights were determined through covenants, Abu Bakr Siddiq not only upheld these rights but also signed his seal. Then confirmed it. Thus, in the countries that were conquered during his own reign, the Dhimmi subjects were given almost the same rights as the Muslims, so the words of the treaty with the Ahl al-Hira were as follows:
Their monasteries and churches will not be demolished and no palaces will be demolished in which they are fortified against enemies in times of need, bells will not be prohibited and crosses will not be prevented from being taken out on festive occasions. (Book of Exodus)
During the reign of the first caliph, the rate of jizya or tax was very simple and it was ordered to be fixed only on those who were able to pay it, so out of the seven thousand inhabitants of Haira, one thousand were absolutely exempt and only ten on the rest. Ten dirhams were fixed annually. The agreements also stipulated that if a dhimmi became old, crippled and impoverished, he would be exempted from jizya. Also, the treasury will be its guarantor. (کتاب الخراج ص ۷۲)
Can the history of the world offer such an example of impartiality and patriotism?