DIT ICT NOTES
Definition of Information Technology
The integration of computers and communications is called information technology. Information technology is the technology that uses computing with high-speed communication links to spread information from one place to another. The interconnection of computers enables people to send and receive information. Communication is also used to communicate with different people in the world. The computer is an important component of information technology. Makes it possible to use information technology to solve problems.
The world has become a global village due to advances in information technology. This means that people in the world know each other as if they were living in a village. Information can be easily and quickly transferred from one place to another. It operates a network of computers for creating WEB pages, digitally creating videos on the Internet, selling, buying and running any type of business. For example, telephone and radio equipment and switches are used for voice and communication.
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A computer and communication system consists of six elements.
I) People 2) Procedure 3) Data / Information 4) Hardware 5) Software 6) Communication
This means users or people who run and execute entire data processing tasks and computer installations, or people who work in a data processing environment. The personnel include system analysts. Programmers, data entry operators, and data processing officers.
The process is the principles, policies and procedures of operating computers. To operate a data processing system, to operate a computer, to operate the computer, and to distribute the output from the computer, a method of obtaining and preparing the data is required. This procedure includes control measures such as steps taken to expose data errors and equipment malfunctions.
Facts and statistics are called data. Data is the raw material of IS. Data can take many forms, including. Text data. Audio data, video data, audio data graphics and image data.
Physical parts of a computer system. For example, input devices, output devices and CPUs such as a keyboard, mouse, motherboard, CD-ROM, etc.
The software consists of programs intended to communicate with a computer. The software includes the operating system (MS-DOS). PC DOS UNIX, XENIX, and Linux etc. Database packages for general-purpose programs such as Fox Pro, Debase, Java, etc.
Networks such as data communications/telecommunications technologies and the Internet are essential for all types of organizations and their computer-based data processing. A telecommunications network consists of computers, communication processors, and other devices that are connected to each other via communication media and controlled by communication software.
Q. What is information?
A. Arranging data in a meaningful format so that people can make the necessary decisions is called information, e.g. 2,1,5.4 When sorted it becomes 1,2,4,5 which is information. Information is meaningful, processed data that is relevant and accurate and can be used in decision making. Examples are vouchers, bills, fee registration cards or library cards.
Q. Describe the computer? Answer computer:
A computer is an electronic device that can accept input data. Processes the data, and returns the results of the process data as directed.
A computer is a system of interconnected components that perform basic functions of input, processing, output, storage, and control. There are three main components of a computer that are input. CPU. And output.
Q). Explain the history of computers? History of computers:
The history of computers is very old. That is, it goes back to about 500 BC. The first computing machine was used by the Chinese before the 15th century. ‘
However, in 1812 an English mathematician from Cambridge University. Mr Charles Babbage designed a machine called DIFFERENCE ENGINE. This machine was able to calculate the power of numbers. Babbage also proposed the idea of an ANE Whitica engine, which would be a general-purpose machine capable of calculating various mathematical and/or algebraic formulas.
Store data and print results. He died soon after and never turned his dreams into reality.
The analytics engine was not a successful machine, but it gave rise to research in the field of computers.
In 1946, John Machelli and J.P. Eckert developed an Electronic, Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) at the Moore School of Engineering and Technology in Pennsylvania USA. It was a really successful computer after the development of Mark-I and Mark II at the University of Manchester. ENIAC had the following three major flaws.
- It used serial lines for processing.
- MO storage facility was available.
- It used decimal numbers instead of the binary number system.
These problems were successfully overcome with the development of John V. Owen Newman’s Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC), developed in 1950. It was the first computer capable of doing unscientific work. In addition, most computers today are based on the work of EDVAC. The development of these machines led to the existence of computers and they became a commercial enterprise used in many government organizations.
Since the EDVAC was the first machine that people used to solve their problems, it was still not a useful machine because it could not solve all the problems of that time. Therefore, efforts were made to develop a machine that could solve all our problems. In this regard, scientists from time to time develop and transform the previous machine into the latest machine. Because of these improvements, we now have computers that can solve all kinds of problems.
The benefits of computers
- Many years ago the use of computers was not as common as it is today.
- The advantages/disadvantages of the computer are as follows
1. Speed: – Computer works very fast and is much faster than humans. One computer can do billions of calculations in a second. The time used to perform a computer operation is called processing speed. Computer speed is measured in megahertz (megahertz)
2. Storage: – A computer can store a large amount of data, the user can use this data at any time.
3. Processing: – A computer can execute a given instruction. It can perform various types of processing such as addition, subtraction, distribution and so on.
4. Accuracy: Accuracy means providing results without error. Computers can process large amounts of data and produce accurate results.
5 Commun. Communication: – Today most computers are capable of communicating with other computers. We can connect to two or more computers using a communication device such as a modem, NIC card.
6. Versatile: – A computer can perform a variety of tasks. We can use a computer in a hospital, bank. In the office or at home and c.
7. Cost reduction: We can perform a difficult task in less time and less cost. For example, we have hired a lot of people to run the office. The same person can perform the same person.