Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 13 Support and Movement Short Questions

The best notes of 2021 Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 13 Support and Movement Short Questions, and long question for all pak educational boards.

Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 13 Support and Movement Short Questions
Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 13 Support and Movement Short Questions perfect24u.com

Chapter 13 Support and Movement Short Questions

Q.1) Why are bones considered as dynamic structures?    

Answer:
The skeletal muscles are attached to the bones. Hands, legs, pectoral girdle, and the pelvic girdle help in movement. The muscular system has an important role in the movement. Due to the attachment of muscles with the bones, these bones can move and thus we can move.

Q.2) What is the contribution of Vesalius in understanding the human skeleton?

Answer:
Vesalius worked closely with the famous artist Titian who produced 277 anatomical illustrations for his book. He explained the different parts of the human skeleton, including the number of bones. He also described the source and position of each muscle and provided information on their respective functions.

Q.3) Describe the function of three major types of joints and give an example of each.

Answer:
Three major types of joints;
a. Immovable joints:
In immovable joints, the bones are any movement. For example, the joints present among the bones of the skull are immovable joints.
b. Slightly movable joints:
These are the joints which allow little movement for example. joints of the vertebral column, ribs, etc.
c. Freely movable joints:
These joints allow free movements. There are two types of freely moveable joints i.e. hinge joint and ball-and-socket joints.
(i). Hinge joints: Hinge joints allow movements only in two directions. These are present at the elbow and the knee.
(ii). Ball-and-socket joint: Ball-and-socket joints allow movement in all directions (up, down, forward, and backward). Hip joint and shoulder joint are examples of ball-and-socket joints.

Q.4) How are different types of arthritis caused?

Answer:
Arthritis:
Arthritis is the disorder of the joints where they get inflamed. This is a degenerative disease that damages the joint permanently.
Following are the type of arthritis;
i. Osteoarthritis:
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis.
Cause:
This disease affects cartilage, which starts to wear away over time. In extream cases, the cartilage can completely wear away, leaving nothing to protect the bones in a joint, causing direct bone-on-bone contact.
ii. Rheumatoid Arthritis:
Rheumatoid Arthritis is an autoimmune disease.
Cause:
This is caused by the attack of the body immune system on the joints, which become inflamed and swollen. It can destroy cartilage and bone within the joints.
iii. Gouty Arthritis:
It is arthritis due to the accumulation of uric acids in joints and causes inflammation in joints which is called gout or gouty arthritis.
Cause:
It is caused by higher than normal level s of uric acid in the blood and deposit of a large amount of uric acid in the lining of the joints in the form of crystals.

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Q.5) Differentiate between a skeletal muscle’s origin and insertion?

Answer:
The point where the muscle attaches to the fixed bone is called origin. The point where muscle attaches to moving bones is called insertion.

Q.6) State the functions of flexors and extensors.

Answer:
When the biceps muscle contracts, its insertion with the radius bone, pulls the bone upward. At the same time the triceps muscle relaxes and the lower arm moves upwards causing a flexion.
The bicep muscle in this case is the flexor and the triceps muscle the extensor.

Q.7) What are ligaments and tendons? What function do they perform?

Answer:
Ligaments:
They are tough bands of connective tissue, which hold the bones at the joints, in place.
Tendons:
They are tough connective tissues, which attach muscles to bones. When a muscle contracts, the tendon exerts a pulling force on the attached bones. As a result, the bone is pulled towards the muscle.

Q.8) State five functions of bones.

Answer:
Functions of Bones:

  1. Bones are the hardest and the most rigid form of connective tissue in the human body.
  2. Muscles pull our bones to enable movements
  3. It provides support and protects delicate internal organs. 
  4. The internal portion of many bones produces red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
  5. Bones give shape and structure to the body.

Long Questions Biology Class 10 Notes Chapter 13 Support and Movement

Q.1) Describe the role of skeleton and muscles in locomotion.

Answer:
Role of the Skeletal System

  • The skeleton performs the following functions in the body.
  • The skeleton forms the hard structure of the body and gives it a definite shape.
  • The skeletal muscles are attached to the bones. Hands, legs, pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle help in movement. The muscular system has an important role in movement. Due to the attachment of muscles with the bones, these bones can move and thus we can move.
  • The skull protects the brain and the vertebral column protects the spinal cord. Similarly, the lungs and heart are protected in the rib cage.
  • Bone marrow produces the red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells.
  • Bones store mineral salts (calcium, potassium, phosphorus). This is the reason why the bones remain hard and strong.

Muscles and its Types:
Locomotion and all other types of movements are due to the contraction of muscles of body. We have three types of muscles in our body
(i). The Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is an involuntary muscle-meaning we cannot control its function. Contractions of the cardiac muscle help the heart to pump blood throughout the body. Cardiac muscles keep on contracting throughout our life.
(ii). Smooth muscles are found in the walls of organs e g. the digestive tract, air passageways, blood vessels and the urinary bladder etc. Their contractions move the materials present in the organs.
(iii). Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones of the skeleton. Their contractions help us in movement and locomotion.

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Q.2) Differentiate between the axial and appendicular skeleton and describe the major components of both.

Answer:
1. Axial Skeleton:
The term axis means the central point around which other structures are distributed. The axial skeleton lies in the centre of the body around which the whole body is built. The axial skeleton includes the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs, and the sternum.
a. Skull:
The skull is made up of the cranium and facial bones. The cranium consists of 8 bones, which protect the brain. There are 14 facial bones, which make the skeletal part of our face.
b. Vertebral Column:
The vertebral column extends from the skull to the pelvis. It consists of the backbone, which not only allows us to stand erect but also protects the spinal cord. The vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae. The vertebrae are named according to their location in the body. Those 7 vertebrae present in the neck are called cervical vertebrae. 12 vertebrae which lie in the chest region are called thoracic vertebrae. Those five vertebrae which lie in the back region are termed as the lumbar vertebrae and those nine found between the lower limbs area are called the pelvic vertebrae. The pelvic vertebrae make two sets i.e. the sacrum and the coccyx. The sacrum is formed by the fusion of anterior five vertebrae whereas coccyx is formed by the fusion of four posterior vertebrae.
c. Chest bone and Ribs:
There are 12 pairs of ribs in the human body, which are attached on the dorsal (back) side with the vertebrae. Out of the 12, 10 pairs of ribs connect anteriorly with the chest bone (sternum) either directly or through an arch. The rib cage provides support to the thoracic cavity (chest cavity) in which vital organs like the heart, lungs, etc. are present, The lower 2 pairs of ribs are called floating ribs because they do not attach with the sternum.
d. Middle Ear Bones:
Each human ear has three bones called ossicles. These are the malleus, the incus, and the stapes.
e. Neckbone:
There is one bone in the neck called the hyoid bone.
2. Appendicular Skeleton:
The appendicular skeleton consists of the following parts.
a. Pectoral Girdle:
The pectoral girdle attaches the forelimbs to the vertebral column. It is comprised of 4 bones of the shoulder (2 bones on each side).
b. Forelimbs (Arms and Hands):
The arms contain 6 bones (3 in each arm). The hands contain 54 bones (27 in each hand).
c. Pelvic Girdle:
The pelvic girdle attaches the hind limbs to the vertebral column. It consists of 2 bones.
d. Hind limbs (Legs and Feet):
The legs contain 8 bones (4 in each leg) while both feet contains 52 bones (26 in each foot).

Q.3) Discuss different types of joints and their role.

Answer:
Three major types of joints;
a. Immovable joints:
In immovable joints, the bones are any movement. For example, the joints present among the bones of the skull are immovable joints.
b. Slightly movable joints:
These are the joints which allow little movement for example. joints of the vertebral column, ribs, etc.
c. Freely movable joints:
These joints allow free movements. There are two types of freely moveable joints i.e. hinge joint and ball-and-socket joints.
(i). Hinge joints: 
Hinge joints allow movements only in two directions. These are present at the elbow and the knee.
(ii). Ball-and-socket joint: 
Ball-and-socket joints allow movement in all directions (up, down, forward, and backward). Hip joint and shoulder joint are examples of ball-and-socket joints.

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Q.4) Write the causes and treatments of arthritis and osteoporosis.

Answer:
Arthritis:
Arthritis is a disorder of the joints where they get inflamed. This is a degenerative disease that damages the joints permanently. As a result, pain, stiffness, and swelling of the joints take place. The different types of arthritis are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis. In this disorder, membranes lining the joints thicken and fluid production is decreased, which results in increased friction causing severe pain and in later stages complete immobility. With the passage of time, the joints become permanently swollen and get de-shaped.
Osteoarthritis:
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. This disease affects cartilage, which starts to wear away over time. In extreme cases, the cartilage can completely wear away, leaving nothing to protect the bones in a joint, causing direct bone-on-bone contact. It occurs most often in older people. Osteoarthritis usually affects the weight-bearing joints (the joints of the vertebrae, knee, and hip). Osteoarthritis causes joint pain and can limit a person’s normal range of mobility.

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